Use these sources for help with formatting and in-text citations.
The MLA and APA Handbooks do not always provide citation recommendations for specific business sources and information types. The following examples are suggestions generated after checking a number of sources. Consult with your instructor to determine if he/she has any changes or additional preferences.
Both MLA and APA formats for reference lists are double spaced with hanging indent. The examples below are not in this format.
APA: Surname, A. A., & Surname, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available), pages. Retrieved from database/URL/DOI.(optional)
MLA: Surname, Firstname, and Firstname Surname. "Title." Source. Publisher, Date of publication: pagination. Database name. DOI/URL. Date accessed optional.
(When certain information is unavailable, use these special abbreviations: No publisher: n.p.; No publication date: n.d.; No pagination: n. pag.)
APA: SADIF Investment Analytics. (2012). Is now the time to buy Starbucks corporation? Retrieved from ThomsonOne database.
MLA: "Is Now the Time to Buy Starbucks Corporation?" SADIF Newsletter & Investment Management Portal. Marques Mendes & Associados Ltd., 5 Oct. 2012: 1-12. ThomsonOne. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
Annual Reports and Other Financial Filings
APA: Kellogg Company. (2018). Form 10-K annual report for fiscal year ended December 30, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/55067/000162828018001872/k-2017…
MLA: Kellogg Company. "Form 10-K Annual Report for Fiscal Year Ended December 30, 2017." EDGAR. Securities and Exchange Commision, 2018, www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/55067/000162828018001872/k-2017q410xk.h…; Accessed 10 Jan. 2019.
From Corporate Websites
APA: Walmart Inc. (2019). Walmart 2018 annual report. Retrieved January 16, 2019 from https://s2.q4cdn.com/056532643/files/doc_financials/2018/annual/WMT-2018_Annual-Report.pdf
MLA: "Walmart 2018 Annual Report." Walmart, 2019, https://s2.q4cdn.com/056532643/files/doc_financials/2018/annual/WMT-2018_Annual-Report.pdf. Accessed 16 Jan 2019.
APA: Starbucks Corporation. (2012). Starbucks Corp: 10-K. Retrieved from Nexis Uni database.
MLA: "Form DEF 14A." Securities and Exchange Commission EDGAR Online. Securities and Exchange Commission, 23 Jan. 2015. Nexis Uni. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
Article from a Database
APA: Ko, S. B., & Jin, B. (2017). Predictors of purchase intention toward green apparel products. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 21(1), 70-87. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM.
MLA: Ko, Seung B., and Byoungho Jin. "Predictors of Purchase Intention Toward Green Apparel Products." Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol.21, no.1, 2017, pp.70-8. ABI/INFORM Complete. DOI:10.1108/JFMM-07-2014-0057. Accessed 10 Jan. 2019.
APA: Baig, E. C. (2012, December 12). What's up for tech in 2013? BlackBerry could come back, and we could see Apple TV. USA Today, B6. Retrieved from Factiva.
MLA: Baig, Edward C. "What's Up for Tech in 2013? Blackberry Could Come Back, and We Could See Apple TV." USA Today, 12 Dec. 2012, p. B6. Factiva. Accessed 14 Jan. 2013.
APA: Bloomberg L. P. (2012). Stock price graph for Target Corporation 10/22/12 to 10/26/12. Retrieved from Bloomberg database.
MLA: Bloomberg L. P. “Stock price graph for Target Corporation 10/22/12 to 10/26/12.” Bloomberg Terminal. Bloomberg, 2012. Accessed 27 Dec. 2012.
Harvard Business Review Case Study
APA: Yoffie, D. B., & Rossano, P. (2012). Apple Inc. in 2012. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
MLA: Yoffie, David B., and Penelope Rossano. "Apple Inc. in 2012." Harvard Business School. Harvard Business Publishing, 15 May 2012.
Company and Industry Reports
Business Insights: Essentials
APA: Gale Business Insights. (2013). Starbucks Corp. Company Profile. Retrieved from Business Insights: Essentials database.
MLA: "Starbucks Corp. Company Profile." Business Insights: Essentials. Gale Cengage Learning, n.d.: n. pag. Business Insights: Essentials. Accessed 22 Feb. 2015.
APA: O'Connor, C. (2018). IBISWorld Industry Report OD4605: Athletic Shoe Stores in the US. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.
MLA: McKitterick, Will. "IBISWorld Industry Report OD5085: Online Grocery Sales in the US." IBISWorld. IBISWorld, Dec. 2014: n. pag. IBISWorld. Web. 22 Jan. 2015.
APA: MarketLine. (2015). Cummins Inc: Company profile. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.
MLA: "Cummins Inc. Company Profile." MarketLine Advantage. MarketLine, 13 Feb. 2015: 1-33. MarketLine Advantage. Web. 27 Feb. 2015.
APA: Mergent, Inc. (2017). Company overview. In Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.
MLA: "05-195-7769. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Company Overview." Mergent Intellect, Mergent, Inc., June, 2017: n. pag. Mergent Online. Web. 26 Sept. 2017.
APA: Hoover's Inc. (2017). Fast-food & quick-service restaurants. Retrieved from Mergent Intellect database.
MLA: "Fast-Food & Quick-Service Restaurants." Dun & Bradstreet First Research. Hoover's Inc., 2017. Mergent Intellect. Web. 29 Sept. 2017.
APA: Krabeepetcharat, A. (2020). Third-Party Logistics Services. Retrieved from ProcurementIQ database.
MLA: Krabeepetcharat, Andrew. "Third-Party Logistics Services." ProcurementIQ. May 2020, n. pag. ProcurementIQ. Web. 22 June. 2020.
Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage
APA: Standard and Poor's. (2012). Alcoholic beverages & tobacco. Standard & Poor's Industry Surveys. Retrieved from Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage database.
MLA: Agnese, Joseph. "Industry Surveys: Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco." Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage. S&P Capital IQ McGraw Hill Financial, Oct. 2012: 1-60. Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage. Web. 4 Oct. 2013.
LexisNexis Academic -- Company Dossier
APA: LexisNexis. (2010). Target Corporation--snapshot. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database
MLA: "Target Corporation--Snapshot." LexisNexis Academic. LexisNexis, 2010: n. pag. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 21 Jan. 2011.
Advertising Red Books
APA: Advertising Red Books. (2015). Wal-Mart Stores Inc.-company profile. Retrieved from Advertising Red Books database.
MLA: "Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Entry" Red Books Academic. Red Books LLC, 25 Feb. 2015: n. pag. Advertising Redbooks. Web. 27 Feb. 2015.
Data and Statistics from Web
U.S. Census Data: Example is for data tables or statistics found on the U.S. Census Bureau's website.
APA: U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Table 2.2-U.S. Manufacturers' Sales Branches and Offices- Total and E-commerce Sales: 2010 and 2009. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/econ/estats/2010/all2010tables.html
MLA: United States Census Bureau. Population Division. "Table 2-32: New York: Total Voting-Age Population and Citizen Voting-Age Population by Sex, for Counties: 2000." U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau, 4 Mar. 2004. Web. 12 Aug. 2009.
eMarketer: Example is for statistics that come from a website or web page.
APA: This year, all publishers go mobile. (2013). Retrieved January 14, 2014 from http//www.eMarketer.com.
MLA: "This Year, All Publishers Go Mobile." eMarketer. eMarketer Inc., 25 Jan. 2013: n. pag. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
ClickZ: Example is for statistics that come from a website or web page.
APA: Dohnert, J. (2012). Google study reveals web influencing smartphone sales. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http//www.clickz.com.
MLA: Donhert, James. "Google Study Reveals Web Influencing Smartphone Sales." ClickZ. Incisive Media, 30 Nov. 2012: n. pag. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.
Statista: Statista's citation generator always gives n.d. (meaning no date) for the date. Use the Source tab to see when the information was originally published and use that instead of n.d.
APA: Drug Store News. (2018). U.S. sales of skin care products via different sales channels in 2017 (in billion U.S. dollars). Retrieved from Statista database.
MLA: "U.S. Sales of Skin Care Products via Different Sales Channels in 2017 (in Billion U.S. Dollars)." Drug Store News, 2018, Statista - The Statistics Portal, Accessed 16 Jan 2019
Census: Example for citing a data table found via the American Factfinder website.
APA: U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: Provo, Utah. Retrieved January 16, 2015 from http://quickfacts.census.gov
MLA: United States. Census Bureau. American FactFinder. “B11001: Household Type (Including Living Alone).” American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey Office, 2011. Web. 1 Jan. 2013.
SimplyAnalytics: Example for citing a map of demographic data created and downloaded from the SimplyAnalytics database.
APA: Geographic Research, Inc. (2010). Map with U.S. census household income data for Indiana counties. Retrieved from SimplyAnalytics database.
MLA: "Map with U.S. Census Household Income Data for Indiana Counties." SimplyAnalytics. Geographic Research, Inc. and U.S. Census Bureau, 2010. SimplyAnalytics. Web. 5 Nov. 2012.
APA: Harland, B. (2015). Back to school shopping - US - January 2015. Retrieved from Mintel Reports database.
MLA: Harland, Bryant. "Back to School Shopping-US-January 2015." Mintel Reports. Mintel, Jan. 2015: n. pag. Mintel Reports. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
SimplyAnalytics: Example for citing a standard report that houses market research data created in the SimplyAnalytics database.
APA: Geographic Research, Inc. (2011). Standard report for consumer expenditures on men's apparel, 2011 by state. Retrieved from SimplyAnayltics database.
MLA: "Standard Report for Consumer Expenditures on Men's Apparel, 2011 by State." SimplyAnalytics. Geographic Research Inc., 2011. SimplyAnalytics. Web. May 2012.
Passport GMID (Euromonitor)
APA: Euromonitor. (2016). Consumer lifestyles in France. Retrieved from Passport GMID database.
MLA: Euromonitor International. "Hot Drinks in Morrocco." Passport GMID. March 2016. Web. 20 Apr. 2016.
Last update December 2019