Style Guides

Use these sources for help with formatting and in-text citations.


Purdue Owl APA Guide

Short Guide to APA Style



Purdue Owl MLA Guide

The MLA and APA Handbooks do not always provide citation recommendations for specific business sources and information types. The following examples are suggestions generated after checking a number of sources. Consult with your instructor to determine if he/she has any changes or additional preferences. 

Both MLA and APA formats for reference lists are double spaced with hanging indent. The examples below are not in this format.

Basic Format

APA:  Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available), pages. Retrieved from database or URL.(optional)

MLA:  Author. "Title." Source. Publisher, Date of publication: pagination. Database name. Web/Print. Date accessed.

(When certain information is unavailable, use these special abbreviations: No publisher: n.p.; No publication date: n.d.; No pagination: n. pag.)


Analyst Reports


APA:      SADIF Investment Analytics. (2012, Oct 3). Is now the time to buy Starbucks corporation? Retrieved from ThomsonOne database.
MLA:      "Is Now the Time to Buy Starbucks Corporation?" SADIF Newsletter & Investment Management Portal. Marques Mendes & Associados Ltd., 5 Oct. 2012: 1-12. ThomsonOne. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.

Annual Reports and Other Financial Filings


APA:      Kellogg Company. (2017). Form 10-K. Retrieved January 1, 2012 from…
MLA:      "Form 10-K." Securities and Exchange Commission. Securities and Exchange Commission, 26 Feb. 2010: n. pag. EDGAR Online. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.

From Corporate Websites

APA:      Walmart Stores, Inc. (2012). Walmart 2012 annual report.  Retrieved January 2, 2012 from
MLA:      "Walmart 2012 Annual Report." Walmart. Walmart Stores, Inc., n.d.: 1-62. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.

LexisNexis Academic

APA:      Starbucks Corporation. (2012). Starbucks Corp: 10-K. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.
MLA:      "Form DEF 14A." Securities and Exchange Commission EDGAR Online. Securities and Exchange Commission, 23 Jan. 2015. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.

Article from a Database


APA:      Terri, L. R., & Parthasarathy, M. (1997). Ethical implications of target market selection. Journal of Macromarketing, 17(2), 49-64. Retrieved January 3, 2012 from ABI/Inform database.
MLA:      Terri, L. Rittenburg, and Madhavan Parthasarathy. "Ethical Implications of Target Market Selection." Journal of Macromarketing 17.2 (1997): 49-64. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.


APA:       Baig, E. C. (2012, December 12). What's up for tech in 2013? BlackBerry could come back, and we could see Apple TV. USA Today, B6.  Retrieved January 4, 2012 from Factiva.
MLA:       Baig, Edward C. "What's Up for Tech in 2013? Blackberry Could Come Back, and We Could See Apple TV." USA Today 12 Dec. 2012: B6. Factiva. Web. 14 Jan. 2013.

RDS Business Suite

APA:      Wortham, J. (2012, December 15). The Thriving bazaar on Instagram. The New York Times. pp. B1. Retrieved from January 5, 2013 RDS Business Suite.
MLA:      Wortham, Jenna. “The Thriving Bazaar on Instagram.” The New York Times 15 Dec. 2012: B1. RDS Business Suite. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.



APA:      Bloomberg L.P. (2012). Stock price graph for Target Corporation 10/22/12 to 10/26/12. Retrieved January 6, 2013 from Bloomberg database.
MLA:      Bloomberg L.P. “Stock price graph for Target Corporation 10/22/12 to 10/26/12.” Bloomberg Terminal. Bloomberg, 2012. Business/SPEA Information Commons, Bloomington, IN. 27 Dec. 2012.

Case Study

Harvard Business Review Case Study

APA:      Yoffie, D. B., & Rossano, P. (2012). Apple Inc. in 2012. HBS No. 712-490. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing. 
MLA:      Yoffie, David B., and Penelope Rossano. "Apple Inc. in 2012. Harvard Business School Case 712-490." Harvard Business School. Harvard Business Publishing, 15 May 2012: 1-30. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.

Company and Industry Reports

Business Insights: Essentials

APA:      Gale Business Insights. (2013). Starbucks Corp. Company Profile. Retrieved January 7, 2014 from Business Insights: Essentials database.
MLA:      "Starbucks Corp. Company Profile." Business Insights: Essentials. Gale Cengage Learningn.d.: n. pag. Business Insights: Essentials. Web. 22 Feb. 2015.


APA:      Cohen, J. (2013). Online Grocery Sales in the US. IBISWorld Industry Report OD5085. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from IBISWorld database.
MLA:      McKitterick, Will. "IBISWorld Industry Report OD5085: Online Grocery Sales in the US." IBISWorld. IBISWorld, Dec. 2014: n. pag. IBISWorld. Web. 22 Jan. 2015.

MarketLine Advantage

APA:      MarketLine. (2015). Cummins Inc: Company profile. Retrieved January 10, 2016 from MarketLine Advantage database.
MLA:      "Cummins Inc. Company Profile." MarketLine Advantage. MarketLine13 Feb. 2015: 1-33. MarketLine Advantage. Web. 27 Feb. 2015.

Mergent Online

    Company Report:

APA:      Mergent, Inc. (2017). Company overview. In Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Retrieved September 29, 2017 from Mergent Online database.
MLA:       "05-195-7769. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Company Overview." Mergent Intellect, Mergent, Inc., June, 2017: n. pag. Mergent Online. Web. 26 Sept. 2017.

    Industry Report:

APA:      Hoover's Inc. (2017). Fast-food & quick-service restaurants. Retrieved September 29, 2017 from Mergent Intellect database.
MLA:      "Fast-Food & Quick-Service Restaurants." Dun & Bradstreet First Research. Hoover's Inc., 2017. Mergent Intellect. Web. 29 Sept. 2017.

Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage

APA:      Standard and Poor's. (2012, October 4). Alcoholic beverages & tobacco. Standard & Poor's Industry Surveys. Retrieved January 11, 2013 from Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage database.
MLA:      Agnese, Joseph. "Industry Surveys: Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco." Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage. S&P Capital IQ McGraw Hill Financial, Oct. 2012: 1-60. Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage. Web. 4 Oct. 2013.

LexisNexis Academic -- Company Dossier

APA:      LexisNexis. (2010). Target Corporation--snapshot.  Retrieved January 12, 2012 from LexisNexis Academic database
MLA:      "Target Corporation--Snapshot." LexisNexis Academic. LexisNexis, 2010: n. pag. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 21 Jan. 2011.

Advertising  Red Books

APA:      Advertising Red Books. (2015). Wal-Mart Stores Inc.-company profile. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from Advertising Red Books database.
MLA:      "Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Entry" Red Books Academic. Red Books LLC, 25 Feb. 2015: n. pag. Advertising Redbooks. Web. 27 Feb. 2015.

Data and Statistics from Web

U.S. Census Data: Example is for data tables or statistics found on the U.S. Census Bureau's website.

APA:        U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Table 2.2-U.S. Manufacturers' Sales Branches and Offices- Total and E-commerce Sales: 2010 and 2009. Retrieved from
MLA:        United States Census Bureau. Population Division. "Table 2-32: New York: Total Voting-Age Population and Citizen Voting-Age Population by Sex, for Counties: 2000." U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau, 4 Mar. 2004. Web. 12 Aug. 2009.

eMarketer: Example is for statistics that come from a website or web page.

APA:      This year, all publishers go mobile. (2013). Retrieved January 14, 2014 from http//
MLA:      "This Year, All Publishers Go Mobile." eMarketer. eMarketer Inc., 25 Jan. 2013: n. pag. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.

ClickZ: Example is for statistics that come from a website or web page.

APA:      Dohnert, J. (2012). Google study reveals web influencing smartphone sales. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http//
MLA:      Donhert, James. "Google Study Reveals Web Influencing Smartphone Sales." ClickZ. Incisive Media, 30 Nov. 2012: n. pag. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.

Demographic Data

Census: Example for citing a data table found via the American Factfinder website

APA:      U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: Provo, Utah. Retrieved January 16, 2015 from
MLA:      United States. Census Bureau. American FactFinder. “B11001: Household Type (Including Living Alone).” American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey Office, 2011. Web. 1 Jan. 2013.

SimplyAnalytics: Example for citing a map of demographic data created and downloaded from the SimplyAnalytics database.

APA:      Geographic Research, Inc. (2010). Map with U.S. census household income data for Indiana counties.  Retrieved January 17, 2012 from SimplyAnalytics database.
MLA:      "Map with U.S. Census Household Income Data for Indiana Counties." SimplyAnalytics. Geographic Research, Inc. and U.S. Census Bureau, 2010. SimplyAnalytics. Web. 5 Nov. 2012.  

Market Research


APA:        Harland, B. (2015). Back to school shopping - US - January 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2016 from Mintel Reports database.
MLA:        Harland, Bryant. "Back to School Shopping-US-January 2015." Mintel Reports. Mintel, Jan. 2015: n. pag. Mintel Reports. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

SimplyAnalytics: Example for citing a standard report that houses market research data created in the SimplyAnalytics database. 

APA:        Geographic Research, Inc. (2011). Standard report for consumer expenditures on men's apparel, 2011 by state. Retrieved January 20, 2012 from SimplyAnayltics database.
MLA:        "Standard Report for Consumer Expenditures on Men's Apparel, 2011 by State." SimplyAnalytics. Geographic Research Inc., 2011. SimplyAnalytics. Web. May 2012.

Passport GMID (Euromonitor)

APA:        Euromonitor. (2016). Consumer lifestyles in France. Retrieved from Passport GMID database.

MLA:       Euromonitor International. "Hot Drinks in Morrocco." Passport GMID. March 2016. Web. 20 Apr. 2016.

Sources Consulted:

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

Purdue OWL MLA & APA Formatting and Style Guides

York University Business Citation Guide

Boston University Citing Business Sources

Last update September 2017