Use these sources for help with formatting and in-text citations.
The MLA and APA Handbooks do not always provide citation recommendations for specific business sources and information types. The following examples are suggestions generated after checking a number of sources. Consult with your instructor to determine if he/she has any changes or additional preferences.
Both MLA and APA formats for reference lists are double spaced with hanging indent. The examples below are not in this format.
APA: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available), pages. Retrieved from database or URL.(optional)
MLA: Author. "Title." Source. Publisher, Date of publication: pagination. Database name. Web/Print. Date accessed.
(When certain information is unavailable, use these special abbreviations: No publisher: n.p.; No publication date: n.d.; No pagination: n. pag.)
APA: SADIF Investment Analytics. (2012, Oct 3). Is now the time to buy Starbucks corporation? Retrieved from ThomsonOne database.
MLA: "Is Now the Time to Buy Starbucks Corporation?" SADIF Newsletter & Investment Management Portal. Marques Mendes & Associados Ltd., 5 Oct. 2012: 1-12. ThomsonOne. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
Annual Reports and Other Financial Filings
APA: Kellogg Company. (2017). Form 10-K. Retrieved January 1, 2012 from https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/55067/000162828017001510/k-2016…
MLA: "Form 10-K." Securities and Exchange Commission. Securities and Exchange Commission, 26 Feb. 2010: n. pag. EDGAR Online. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
From Corporate Websites
APA: Walmart Stores, Inc. (2012). Walmart 2012 annual report. Retrieved January 2, 2012 from http://stock.walmart.com/annual-reports
MLA: "Walmart 2012 Annual Report." Walmart. Walmart Stores, Inc., n.d.: 1-62. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
APA: Starbucks Corporation. (2012). Starbucks Corp: 10-K. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.
MLA: "Form DEF 14A." Securities and Exchange Commission EDGAR Online. Securities and Exchange Commission, 23 Jan. 2015. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 12 Feb. 2015.
Article from a Database
APA: Terri, L. R., & Parthasarathy, M. (1997). Ethical implications of target market selection. Journal of Macromarketing, 17(2), 49-64. Retrieved January 3, 2012 from ABI/Inform database.
MLA: Terri, L. Rittenburg, and Madhavan Parthasarathy. "Ethical Implications of Target Market Selection." Journal of Macromarketing 17.2 (1997): 49-64. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
APA: Baig, E. C. (2012, December 12). What's up for tech in 2013? BlackBerry could come back, and we could see Apple TV. USA Today, B6. Retrieved January 4, 2012 from Factiva.
MLA: Baig, Edward C. "What's Up for Tech in 2013? Blackberry Could Come Back, and We Could See Apple TV." USA Today 12 Dec. 2012: B6. Factiva. Web. 14 Jan. 2013.
RDS Business Suite
APA: Wortham, J. (2012, December 15). The Thriving bazaar on Instagram. The New York Times. pp. B1. Retrieved from January 5, 2013 RDS Business Suite.
MLA: Wortham, Jenna. “The Thriving Bazaar on Instagram.” The New York Times 15 Dec. 2012: B1. RDS Business Suite. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
APA: Bloomberg L.P. (2012). Stock price graph for Target Corporation 10/22/12 to 10/26/12. Retrieved January 6, 2013 from Bloomberg database.
MLA: Bloomberg L.P. “Stock price graph for Target Corporation 10/22/12 to 10/26/12.” Bloomberg Terminal. Bloomberg, 2012. Business/SPEA Information Commons, Bloomington, IN. 27 Dec. 2012.
Harvard Business Review Case Study
APA: Yoffie, D. B., & Rossano, P. (2012). Apple Inc. in 2012. HBS No. 712-490. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
MLA: Yoffie, David B., and Penelope Rossano. "Apple Inc. in 2012. Harvard Business School Case 712-490." Harvard Business School. Harvard Business Publishing, 15 May 2012: 1-30. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
Company and Industry Reports
Business Insights: Essentials
APA: Gale Business Insights. (2013). Starbucks Corp. Company Profile. Retrieved January 7, 2014 from Business Insights: Essentials database.
MLA: "Starbucks Corp. Company Profile." Business Insights: Essentials. Gale Cengage Learning, n.d.: n. pag. Business Insights: Essentials. Web. 22 Feb. 2015.
APA: Cohen, J. (2013, December). Online Grocery Sales in the US. IBISWorld Industry Report OD5085. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from IBISWorld database.
MLA: McKitterick, Will. "IBISWorld Industry Report OD5085: Online Grocery Sales in the US." IBISWorld. IBISWorld, Dec. 2014: n. pag. IBISWorld. Web. 22 Jan. 2015.
APA: MarketLine. (2015, February 13). Cummins Inc: Company profile. Retrieved January 10, 2016 from MarketLine Advantage database.
MLA: "Cummins Inc. Company Profile." MarketLine Advantage. MarketLine, 13 Feb. 2015: 1-33. MarketLine Advantage. Web. 27 Feb. 2015.
APA: Mergent, Inc. (2017). Company overview. In Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Retrieved September 29, 2017 from Mergent Online database.
MLA: "05-195-7769. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Company Overview." Mergent Intellect, Mergent, Inc., June, 2017: n. pag. Mergent Online. Web. 26 Sept. 2017.
APA: Hoover's Inc. (2017). Fast-food & quick-service restaurants. Retrieved September 29, 2017 from Mergent Intellect database.
MLA: "Fast-Food & Quick-Service Restaurants." Dun & Bradstreet First Research. Hoover's Inc., 2017. Mergent Intellect. Web. 29 Sept. 2017.
Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage
APA: Standard and Poor's. (2012, October 4). Alcoholic beverages & tobacco. Standard & Poor's Industry Surveys. Retrieved January 11, 2013 from Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage database.
MLA: Agnese, Joseph. "Industry Surveys: Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco." Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage. S&P Capital IQ McGraw Hill Financial, Oct. 2012: 1-60. Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage. Web. 4 Oct. 2013.
LexisNexis Academic -- Company Dossier
APA: LexisNexis. (2010). Target Corporation--snapshot. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from LexisNexis Academic database
MLA: "Target Corporation--Snapshot." LexisNexis Academic. LexisNexis, 2010: n. pag. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 21 Jan. 2011.
Advertising Red Books
APA: Advertising Red Books. (2015). Wal-Mart Stores Inc.-company profile. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from Advertising Red Books database.
MLA: "Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Entry" Red Books Academic. Red Books LLC, 25 Feb. 2015: n. pag. Advertising Redbooks. Web. 27 Feb. 2015.
Data and Statistics from Web
U.S. Census Data: Example is for data tables or statistics found on the U.S. Census Bureau's website.
APA: U.S. Census Bureau. (2012, May 10). Table 2.2-U.S. Manufacturers' Sales Branches and Offices- Total and E-commerce Sales: 2010 and 2009. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/econ/estats/2010/all2010tables.html
MLA: United States Census Bureau. Population Division. "Table 2-32: New York: Total Voting-Age Population and Citizen Voting-Age Population by Sex, for Counties: 2000." U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau, 4 Mar. 2004. Web. 12 Aug. 2009.
eMarketer: Example is for statistics that come from a website or web page.
APA: This year, all publishers go mobile. (2013). Retrieved January 14, 2014 from http//www.eMarketer.com.
MLA: "This Year, All Publishers Go Mobile." eMarketer. eMarketer Inc., 25 Jan. 2013: n. pag. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.
ClickZ: Example is for statistics that come from a website or web page.
APA: Dohnert, J. (2012). Google study reveals web influencing smartphone sales. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http//www.clickz.com.
MLA: Donhert, James. "Google Study Reveals Web Influencing Smartphone Sales." ClickZ. Incisive Media, 30 Nov. 2012: n. pag. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.
Census: Example for citing a data table found via the American Factfinder website.
APA: U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: Provo, Utah. Retrieved January 16, 2015 from http://quickfacts.census.gov
MLA: United States. Census Bureau. American FactFinder. “B11001: Household Type (Including Living Alone).” American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey Office, 2011. Web. 1 Jan. 2013.
SimplyAnalytics: Example for citing a map of demographic data created and downloaded from the SimplyAnalytics database.
APA: Geographic Research, Inc. (2010). Map with U.S. census household income data for Indiana counties. Retrieved January 17, 2012 from SimplyAnalytics database.
MLA: "Map with U.S. Census Household Income Data for Indiana Counties." SimplyAnalytics. Geographic Research, Inc. and U.S. Census Bureau, 2010. SimplyAnalytics. Web. 5 Nov. 2012.
APA: Harland, B. (2015). Back to school shopping - US - January 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2016 from Mintel Reports database.
MLA: Harland, Bryant. "Back to School Shopping-US-January 2015." Mintel Reports. Mintel, Jan. 2015: n. pag. Mintel Reports. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
SimplyAnalytics: Example for citing a standard report that houses market research data created in the SimplyAnalytics database.
APA: Geographic Research, Inc. (2011). Standard report for consumer expenditures on men's apparel, 2011 by state. Retrieved January 20, 2012 from SimplyAnayltics database.
MLA: "Standard Report for Consumer Expenditures on Men's Apparel, 2011 by State." SimplyAnalytics. Geographic Research Inc., 2011. SimplyAnalytics. Web. May 2012.
Passport GMID (Euromonitor)
APA: Euromonitor. (2016, March). Consumer lifestyles in France. Retrieved from Passport GMID database.
MLA: Euromonitor International. Hot Drinks in Morrocco. Passport GMID. March 2016. Web. 20 Apr. 2016.
Last update September 2017