Use these sources for help with formatting and in-text citations.
The MLA and APA Handbooks do not always provide citation recommendations for specific business sources and information types. The following examples are suggestions generated after checking a number of sources. Consult with your instructor to determine if he/she has any changes or additional preferences.
Both MLA and APA formats for reference lists are double spaced with hanging indent. The examples below are not in this format.
APA: Surname, A. A., & Surname, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number if available), pages. DOI.(If available)
MLA: Surname, Firstname, and Firstname Surname. "Title." Source. Publisher, Date of publication: pagination. Database name. DOI/URL. Date accessed optional.
(When certain information is unavailable, use these special abbreviations: No publisher: n.p.; No publication date: n.d.; No pagination: n. pag.)
APA: SADIF Investment Analytics. (2012). Is now the time to buy Starbucks corporation? Retrieved from ThomsonOne database.
MLA: "Is Now the Time to Buy Starbucks Corporation?" SADIF Newsletter & Investment Management Portal. Marques Mendes & Associados Ltd., 5 Oct. 2012: 1-12. ThomsonOne. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
Annual Reports and Other Financial Filings
APA: Kellogg Company. (2018). Form 10-K annual report for fiscal year ended December 30, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/55067/000162828018001872/k-2017…
MLA: Kellogg Company. "Form 10-K Annual Report for Fiscal Year Ended December 30, 2017." EDGAR. Securities and Exchange Commision, 2018, www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/55067/000162828018001872/k-2017q410xk.h…; Accessed 10 Jan. 2019.
From Corporate Websites
APA: Walmart Inc. (2019). Walmart 2018 annual report. Retrieved January 16, 2019 from https://s2.q4cdn.com/056532643/files/doc_financials/2018/annual/WMT-2018_Annual-Report.pdf
MLA: "Walmart 2018 Annual Report." Walmart, 2019, https://s2.q4cdn.com/056532643/files/doc_financials/2018/annual/WMT-2018_Annual-Report.pdf. Accessed 16 Jan 2019.
APA: Starbucks Corporation. (2012). Starbucks Corp: 10-K. Retrieved from Nexis Uni database.
MLA: "Form DEF 14A." Securities and Exchange Commission EDGAR Online. Securities and Exchange Commission, 23 Jan. 2015. Nexis Uni.
Article from a Database
APA: Ko, S. B., & Jin, B. (2017). Predictors of purchase intention toward green apparel products. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 21(1), 70-87. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFMM-07-2014-0057
MLA: Ko, Seung B., and Byoungho Jin. "Predictors of Purchase Intention Toward Green Apparel Products." Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol.21, no.1, 2017, pp.70-87. ABI/INFORM Complete, DOI:10.1108/JFMM-07-2014-0057.
APA: Baig, E. C. (2012, December 12). What's up for tech in 2013? BlackBerry could come back, and we could see Apple TV. USA Today, B6.
MLA: Baig, Edward C. "What's Up for Tech in 2013? Blackberry Could Come Back, and We Could See Apple TV." USA Today, 12 Dec. 2012, p. B6. Factiva.
APA: Bloomberg Corporation. (2012). Stock price graph for Target Corporation 10/22/12 to 10/26/12. Retrieved from Bloomberg database.
MLA: Bloomberg Corporation. “Stock price graph for Target Corporation 10/22/12 to 10/26/12.” Bloomberg Terminal.
Harvard Business Review Case Study
APA: Yoffie, D. B., & Rossano, P. (2012). Apple Inc. in 2012. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
MLA: Yoffie, David B., and Penelope Rossano. "Apple Inc. in 2012." Harvard Business School. Harvard Business Publishing,
Company and Industry Reports
Business Insights: Essentials
APA: Gale Business Insights. (2013). Starbucks Corp. Company Profile. Retrieved from Business Insights: Essentials database.
MLA: "Starbucks Corp. Company Profile." Business Insights: Essentials. Gale Cengage Learning, Accessed 22 Feb. 2015.
APA: O'Connor, C. (2018). IBISWorld Industry Report OD4605: Athletic Shoe Stores in the US. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.
MLA: McKitterick, Will. "IBISWorld Industry Report OD5085: Online Grocery Sales in the US." IBISWorld. Dec. 2014.
APA: MarketLine. (2015). Cummins Inc: Company profile. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.
MLA: "Cummins Inc. Company Profile." MarketLine Advantage. MarketLine, 13 Feb. 2015: 1-33. MarketLine Advantage.
APA: Mergent, Inc. (2017). Company overview. In Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.
MLA: "Walmart Stores Inc." June, 2017. Mergent Online. Accessed 6 Jun, 2022.
APA: Hoover's Inc. (2017). Fast-food & quick-service restaurants. Retrieved from Mergent Intellect database.
MLA: "Fast-Food & Quick-Service Restaurants." Dun & Bradstreet First Research. Hoover's Inc., 2017. Mergent Intellect.
APA: Privco. (2021). PsiQuantum. Retrieved from Privco database.
MLA: "PsiQuantum." Privco. 2021. Privco.
APA: Krabeepetcharat, A. (2020). Third-Party Logistics Services. Retrieved from ProcurementIQ database.
MLA: Krabeepetcharat, Andrew. "Third-Party Logistics Services." ProcurementIQ. May 2020, n. pag. ProcurementIQ.
Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage
APA: Standard and Poor's. (2012). Alcoholic beverages & tobacco. Standard & Poor's Industry Surveys. Retrieved from Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage database.
MLA: Agnese, Joseph. "Industry Surveys: Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco." Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage. S&P Capital IQ McGraw Hill Financial, Oct. 2012: 1-60. Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage.
LexisNexis Academic -- Company Dossier
APA: LexisNexis. (2010). Target Corporation--snapshot. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database
MLA: "Target Corporation--Snapshot." LexisNexis Academic. LexisNexis, 2010. LexisNexis Academic.
Advertising Red Books
APA: Advertising Red Books. (2015). Wal-Mart Stores Inc.-company profile. Retrieved from Advertising Red Books database.
MLA: "Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Entry" Red Books Academic. Red Books LLC, 25 Feb. 2015.
Data and Statistics from Web
U.S. Census Data: Example is for data tables or statistics found on the U.S. Census Bureau's website.
APA: U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Table 2.2-U.S. Manufacturers' Sales Branches and Offices- Total and E-commerce Sales: 2010 and 2009. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/econ/estats/2010/all2010tables.html
MLA: United States Census Bureau. Population Division. "Table 2-32: New York: Total Voting-Age Population and Citizen Voting-Age Population by Sex, for Counties: 2000." U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau.
eMarketer: Example is for statistics that come from a website or web page.
APA: This year, all publishers go mobile. (2013). Retrieved January 14, 2014 from http//www.eMarketer.com.
MLA: "This Year, All Publishers Go Mobile." eMarketer. eMarketer Inc., 25 Jan. 2013.
ClickZ: Example is for statistics that come from a website or web page.
APA: Dohnert, J. (2012). Google study reveals web influencing smartphone sales. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http//www.clickz.com.
MLA: Donhert, James. "Google Study Reveals Web Influencing Smartphone Sales." ClickZ. Incisive Media, 30 Nov. 2012.
Statista: Statista's citation generator always gives n.d. (meaning no date) for the date. Use the Source tab to see when the information was originally published and use that instead of n.d.
APA: Drug Store News. (2018). U.S. sales of skin care products via different sales channels in 2017 (in billion U.S. dollars). Retrieved from Statista database.
MLA: "U.S. Sales of Skin Care Products via Different Sales Channels in 2017 (in Billion U.S. Dollars)." Drug Store News, 2018, Statista - The Statistics Portal,
Census: Example for citing a data table found via the American Factfinder website.
APA: U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: Provo, Utah. Retrieved January 16, 2015 from http://quickfacts.census.gov
MLA: United States. Census Bureau. American FactFinder. “B11001: Household Type (Including Living Alone).” American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey Office, 2011.
SimplyAnalytics: Example for citing a map of demographic data created and downloaded from the SimplyAnalytics database.
APA: Geographic Research, Inc. (2010). Map with U.S. census household income data for Indiana counties. Retrieved from SimplyAnalytics database.
MLA: "Map with U.S. Census Household Income Data for Indiana Counties." SimplyAnalytics. Geographic Research, Inc. and U.S. Census Bureau, 2010. SimplyAnalytics.
APA: Harland, B. (2015). Back to school shopping - US - January 2015. Retrieved from Mintel Reports database.
MLA: Harland, Bryant. "Back to School Shopping-US-January 2015." Mintel Reports. Mintel,
SimplyAnalytics: Example for citing a standard report that houses market research data created in the SimplyAnalytics database.
APA: Geographic Research, Inc. (2011). Standard report for consumer expenditures on men's apparel, 2011 by state. Retrieved from SimplyAnayltics database.
MLA: "Standard Report for Consumer Expenditures on Men's Apparel, 2011 by State." SimplyAnalytics. Geographic Research Inc., 2011. SimplyAnalytics.
Passport GMID (Euromonitor)
APA: Euromonitor. (2016). Consumer lifestyles in France. Retrieved from Passport GMID database.
MLA: Euromonitor International. "Hot Drinks in Morrocco." Passport GMID. March 2016.
Last update July 2022