Style Guides

Use these sources for help with formatting and in-text citations.


Purdue Owl APA Guide



Purdue Owl MLA Guide

The MLA and APA Handbooks do not always provide citation recommendations for specific business sources and information types. The following examples are suggestions generated after checking a number of sources. Consult with your instructor to determine if he/she has any changes or additional preferences.

Both MLA and APA formats for reference lists are double spaced with hanging indent. The examples below are not in this format.

Basic Format

APA:  Surname, A. A., & Surname, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number if available), pages. DOI.(If available)

MLA:  Surname, Firstname, and Firstname Surname. "Title." Source. Publisher, Date of publication: pagination. Database name. DOI/URL. Date accessed optional.

(When certain information is unavailable, use these special abbreviations: No publisher: n.p.; No publication date: n.d.; No pagination: n. pag.)


Analyst Reports

Investext via Mergent Online

APA:      SADIF Investment Analytics. (2012). Is now the time to buy Starbucks corporation? Retrieved from Mergent Online database.
MLA:      "Is Now the Time to Buy Starbucks Corporation?" SADIF Newsletter & Investment Management Portal. Marques Mendes & Associados Ltd., 5 Oct. 2012: 1-12. Mergent Online. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.

Annual Reports and Other Financial Filings


APA:      Kellogg Company. (2018). Form 10-K annual report for fiscal year ended December 30, 2017. Retrieved from…

MLA:      Kellogg Company. "Form 10-K Annual Report for Fiscal Year Ended December 30, 2017." EDGAR. Securities and Exchange Commision, 2018,…


From Corporate Websites

APA:      Walmart Inc. (2019). Walmart 2018 annual report.  Retrieved January 16, 2019 from
MLA:      "Walmart 2018 Annual Report." Walmart, 2019, Accessed 16 Jan 2019.

Nexis Uni

APA:      Starbucks Corporation. (2012). Starbucks Corp: 10-K. Retrieved from Nexis Uni database.
MLA:      "Form DEF 14A." Securities and Exchange Commission EDGAR Online. Securities and Exchange Commission, 23 Jan. 2015. Nexis Uni.

Article from a Database


APA:      Ko, S. B., & Jin, B. (2017). Predictors of purchase intention toward green apparel products. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 21(1), 70-87.
MLA:      Ko, Seung B., and Byoungho Jin. "Predictors of Purchase Intention Toward Green Apparel Products." Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol.21, no.1, 2017, pp.70-87. ABI/INFORM Complete, DOI:10.1108/JFMM-07-2014-0057. 


APA:       Baig, E. C. (2012, December 12). What's up for tech in 2013? BlackBerry could come back, and we could see Apple TV. USA Today, B6.  
MLA:       Baig, Edward C. "What's Up for Tech in 2013? Blackberry Could Come Back, and We Could See Apple TV." USA Today, 12 Dec. 2012, p. B6. Factiva



APA:      Bloomberg Corporation. (2012). Stock price graph for Target Corporation 10/22/12 to 10/26/12. Retrieved from Bloomberg database.
MLA:      Bloomberg Corporation. “Stock price graph for Target Corporation 10/22/12 to 10/26/12.” Bloomberg Terminal.

Case Study

Harvard Business Review Case Study

APA:      Yoffie, D. B., & Rossano, P. (2012). Apple Inc. in 2012. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing. 
MLA:      Yoffie, David B., and Penelope Rossano. "Apple Inc. in 2012." Harvard Business School. Harvard Business Publishing

Company and Industry Reports

Business Insights: Essentials

APA:      Gale Business Insights. (2013). Starbucks Corp. Company Profile. Retrieved from Business Insights: Essentials database.
MLA:      "Starbucks Corp. Company Profile." Business Insights: Essentials. Gale Cengage Learning Accessed 22 Feb. 2015.


APA:      O'Connor, C. (2018). IBISWorld Industry Report OD4605: Athletic Shoe Stores in the US. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.
MLA:      McKitterick, Will. "IBISWorld Industry Report OD5085: Online Grocery Sales in the US." IBISWorld. Dec. 2014.

MarketLine Advantage

APA:      MarketLine. (2015). Cummins Inc: Company profile. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.
MLA:      "Cummins Inc. Company Profile." MarketLine Advantage. MarketLine13 Feb. 2015: 1-33. MarketLine Advantage

Mergent Online

    Company Report:

APA:      Mergent, Inc. (2017). Company overview. In Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.
MLA:       "Walmart Stores Inc." June, 2017. Mergent Online. Accessed 6 Jun, 2022.

    Industry Report:

APA:      Hoover's Inc. (2017). Fast-food & quick-service restaurants. Retrieved from Mergent Intellect database.
MLA:      "Fast-Food & Quick-Service Restaurants." Dun & Bradstreet First Research. Hoover's Inc., 2017. Mergent Intellect.


APA:      Privco. (2021). PsiQuantum. Retrieved from Privco database.
MLA:      "PsiQuantum." Privco.  2021. Privco


APA:      Krabeepetcharat, A. (2020). Third-Party Logistics Services. Retrieved from ProcurementIQ database.
MLA:      Krabeepetcharat, Andrew. "Third-Party Logistics Services." ProcurementIQ. May 2020, n. pag. ProcurementIQ. 

Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage

APA:      Standard and Poor's. (2012). Alcoholic beverages & tobacco. Standard & Poor's Industry Surveys. Retrieved  from Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage database.
MLA:      Agnese, Joseph. "Industry Surveys: Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco." Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage. S&P Capital IQ McGraw Hill Financial, Oct. 2012: 1-60. Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage

LexisNexis Academic -- Company Dossier

APA:      LexisNexis. (2010). Target Corporation--snapshot.  Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database
MLA:      "Target Corporation--Snapshot." LexisNexis Academic. LexisNexis, 2010. LexisNexis Academic.

Advertising Red Books

APA:      Advertising Red Books. (2015). Wal-Mart Stores Inc.-company profile. Retrieved from Advertising Red Books database.
MLA:      "Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Entry" Red Books Academic. Red Books LLC, 25 Feb. 2015.

Data and Statistics from Web

U.S. Census Data: Example is for data tables or statistics found on the U.S. Census Bureau's website.

APA:        U.S. Census Bureau. (2023). Table 2A-2D: U.S. Percentage of All, On-site, Mixed, and Home Jobs by Selected Job Characteristics (2019-2021). Retrieved from…

MLA:        United States Census Bureau. Population Division. " Table 2A-2D: U.S. Percentage of All, On-site, Mixed, and Home Jobs by Selected Job Characteristics (2019-2021)." U.S. Census Bureau.…

eMarketer: Example is for statistics that come from a website or web page.

APA:      Droesch, B. (2024). The rise of grocery brings a fundamental shift in the ecommerce landscape.…
MLA:      Droesch, Blake "The rise of grocery brings a fundamental shift in the ecommerce landscape." eMarketer.  10 Jan. 2024.

ClickZ: Example is for statistics that come from a website or web page with no listed author.

APA:     The Importance of Multi-Touch Attribution in eCommerce Marketing. (2023).….
MLA:      "The Importance of Multi-Touch Attribution in eCommerce Marketing." ClickZ. Incisive Media, 29 Nov. 2023.….

Statista: Find the citation by clicking the citation formats links under the Source tab. Note that Statista gathers data from many sources, but also does original research, so the author/publisher may or may not be Statista itself. Do not include a URL in the citation because Statista's data is not available on the open Web.

APA:     Drug Store News. (2018). Sales growth of skin care products in the United States as of 2017, by sales channel [Graph]. Retrieved from Statista database.

MLA:     "Sales growth of skin care products in the United States as of 2017, by sales channel." Drug Store News, 2018, Statista.

Demographic Data

APA:      U.S. Census Bureau. (2023). QuickFacts Provo city, Utah; United States. Retrieved January 10, 2024 from,US/PST045223
MLA:      U.S. Census Bureau.“QuickFacts Provo city, Utah; United States.” 1 Jul. 2023.,US/PST045223

SimplyAnalytics: Example for citing a map of demographic data created and downloaded from the SimplyAnalytics database.

APA:      Geographic Research, Inc. (2010). Map with U.S. census household income data for Indiana counties.  Retrieved from SimplyAnalytics database.
MLA:      "Map with U.S. Census Household Income Data for Indiana Counties." SimplyAnalytics. Geographic Research, Inc. and U.S. Census Bureau, 2010. SimplyAnalytics

Market Research


APA:        Harland, B. (2015). Back to school shopping - US - January 2015. Retrieved from Mintel Reports database.
MLA:        Harland, Bryant. "Back to School Shopping-US-January 2015." Mintel Reports. Mintel, 

SimplyAnalytics: Example for citing a standard report that houses market research data created in the SimplyAnalytics database. 

APA:        Geographic Research, Inc. (2011). Standard report for consumer expenditures on men's apparel, 2011 by state. Retrieved from SimplyAnayltics database.
MLA:        "Standard Report for Consumer Expenditures on Men's Apparel, 2011 by State." SimplyAnalytics. Geographic Research Inc., 2011. SimplyAnalytics.

Passport GMID (Euromonitor)

APA:        Euromonitor. (2016). Consumer lifestyles in France. Retrieved from Passport GMID database.

MLA:       Euromonitor International. "Hot Drinks in Morocco." Passport GMID. March 2016. 

Sources Consulted:

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

Purdue OWL MLA & APA Formatting and Style Guides

York University Business Citation Guide

Boston University Citing Business Sources

Last update July 2022