An Atlas of Indiana, by Robert C. Kingsbury.
With contributions from John M.Hollingsworth and others. --
[BLOOMINGTON, Univ.,1970 Indiana Geography, of Dept.](Indiana. University. Dept. of Geography. Occasional Publication no. 5)
Scanned and prepared by Matt Dye and Hui Hua Chua for the Government Publications Department as part of an Indiana Heritage Research Grant with funds provided by the Indiana Historical Society and the Indiana Humanities Council. 1999/2000.
- About Cartography
- Major Map and Statistical Data Sources
- Back Cover
This small thematic atlas of the state of Indiana is offered by the Department of Geography as a contribution to the University's Sesquicentennial celebration of 1970. It attempts to present a broad coverage of both natural conditions and human activities on a state-wide basis.
Some 109 maps are presented in this atlas. While the majority are original maps which have not been published before, some of the maps have been printed previously. Included are some revised adaptations of maps which appeared originally in An Atlas of Southern Indiana, Occasional Publication No. 3, Department of Geography, Indiana University, 1966.
(This atlas is now out-of-print). A few others are copies of existing maps prepared by the Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce (U.S.), Geological Survey, Department of Interior (U.S.), and geological Survey, Department of Ntural Resources (Indiana). Complete explanation will be found under About the Cartography on pages 86-87, and a listing of major statistical and cartographic sources for all maps starts on page 88.
A small atlas of this type necessarily includes only a small selected group of maps.Obviously, a large number of other maps could have been included or could have been substituted for those included here. The final map selection was based upon presenting subjects of the greatest potential interest to the widest possible audience. Only the user can say whether or not a wise selection of maps has been made.
A relatively unique feature of this atlas is the inclusion of computer-generated cartography. A few maps were compiled by computer and then hand drafted, but most of the computer maps are presented just as produced by the printer. I am indebted to the personnel of the Research Computing Center, Indiana University and to Professor Jerome Clemens of the Department of Geography for their considerable assistance in this computercartography. Further explanation of these computer maps is included also under About the Cartography.
Appreciation must be expressed to numerous other people for helping with the compilation of this atlas. Special thanks are due John M. Hollingsworth, Staff Cartographer,Department of Geography, who drafted the maps on pages 76-79, originally devised the computer maps on pages 24-27, and provided other valuable assistance in the production of this atlas. Phani Deka, a graduate student in geography, aided by preparing some of the map type. Several students in cartography courses prepared maps for this atlas. These contributors and the page numbers on which their maps appear:
William P. Ciz * 80, 81, 82
Dan Dull * 65 (sweet corn)
Joyce Fox * 70, 71, 72 (distribution maps only)
Dan Graef * 65 (popcorn), 69 (tobacco)
James F. Sanford * 7, 13, 18, 20, 21, 29, 41
Phillip R. Terman * 12, 16, 17, 22, 23, 30, 31
If this atlas proves of use, we would like to compile a revised edition once the statistical materials of the 1970 Census of Population become available. At that time, we want to correct any errors on the existing maps. Thus, all information on corrections needed as well as suggestions for map additions or deletions are solicited from users of this atlas.
Robert C. Kingsbury
Associate Professor of Geography
1. The State:
- Indian Treaties......page 7
- Counties, 1816......page 8
- Counties and Evolution of County Seats......page 9
- Counties and Townships......page 10
- Higher Education......page 11
2. The Physical Landscape:
- Generalized Topography ......page 12
- Soils......page 13
- Physiographic Regions......page 14
- Physiographic Diagram......page 15
- Glacial Geology......page 16
- Bedrock Geology......page 17
- Drainage......page 18
- Water Resources: Major Reservoirs, River Discharge, Average Annual Runoff, Ground Water......page 19
- Natural Vegetation......page 20
- Employees in Mineral Industries, 1963......page 21
- Mineral Resources (Sand and Gravel, Crushed Stone, others)......page 22
- Mineral Resources: Coal, Oil and Gas Dimension Limestone......page 23
- Average Annual Temperature......page 24
- Average January Temperature......page 25
- Average July Temperature......page 25
- Average Annual Precipitation......page 26
- Average January Precipitation......page 27
- Average July Precipitation......page 27
- Average Annual Snowfall......page 28
- Length of the Growing Season......page 28
3. Population Characteristics:
- Settlements with a Population of 1,000-25,000, 1960 ......page 29
- Population Distribution, 1860......page 30
- Population Distribution, 1960......page 31
- Population Density, 1960, Version #1 and #2......page 32
- Population Density, 1960, Version #3......page 33
- Population Change, 1860-1960......page 34
- Population Change: 1950-1960; 1960-1966......page 35
- Rural Farm Population, 1960......page 36
- Rural Non-Farm Population, 1960......page 36
- Urban Population, 1960......page 37
- Non-White Population, 1960......page 37
- 16 and 17 Year Olds in School, 1960......page 38
- Population with a High School Education, 1960......page 38
- Personal Income, 1959......page 39
- Family Income, 1959......page 40
4. Cities, Trade & Industries:
- Major Urban Areas, 1960......page 41
- Foreign Country and Region Names Used For Indiana Cities and Towns......page 42
- Urban Population Change, 1910-1960......page 43
- All Businesses, 1967......page 44
- Service Trades, 1967......page 45
- Wholesale Trade: Employees, 1967; Sales, 1963......page 46
- Retail Trade: Employees, 1967; Sales, 1963......page 47
- Manufacturing Industries, 1967......page 48
- Value Added by Manufacturing, 1963......page 49
- Food Industries, 1967......page 50
- Lumber, Furniture, and Other Wood Products Industries......page 51
- Stone, Clay and Glass Industries, 1967......page 52
- Rubber and Plastic Products Industries, 1967......page 53
- Primary Metal Industries, 1967......page 54
- Fabricated Metal Products Industries, 1967......page 55
- Electrical Machinery Industries, 1967......page 56
- Non-Electrical Machinery Industries, 1967......page 57
- Chemical Industries, 1967......page 58
- Transportation Equipment Industries, 1967......page 59
5. Farming & Agricultural Products:
- Types of Farming......page 60
- Land in farms, 1964......page 60
- Average Size of Farms, 1964......page 61
- Farm Land Values, 1964......page 61
- All Cropland, 1964......page 62
- Harvested Cropland, 1964......page 62
- Pastured Cropland, 1964......page 63
- Field Tractors, 1964......page 63
- Corn: As a Percent of all cropland, 1964; Acreage, 1964......page 64
- Sweet Corn Acreage, 1964......page 65
- Popcorn Acreage, 1964......page 65
- Wheat: As a Percent of all Cropland, 1964; Acreage, 1964......page 66
- Soybeans: As a Percent of all Cropland, 1964; Acreage, 1964......page 67
- Oats: As a Percent of all Cropland, 1964; Acreage, 1964......page 68
- Tree Fruits, Nuts, and Grapes Acreages, 1964......page 69
- Vegetable Acreage, 1964......page 69
- Tobacco Acreage, 1964......page 69
- Hogs and Pigs: Number per 1,000 Acres of Cropland 1964; Distribution, 1964......page 70
- Cattle and Calves: Number of 1,000 Acres of Cropland, 1964; Distribution, 1964......page 71
- Sheep and Lambs: Number per 1,000 Acres of Cropland, 1964; Distribution, 1964......page 72
- Value of All Agricultural Products Sold, 1964......page 73
6. Transportation & Recreation:
- Early Routes of Transportation......page 74
- Railroad, Passenger Traffic Flow: 1869 and 1969......page 75
- Railroads, 1880......page 76
- Railroads, 1969......page 77
- Electric Interurban Railraods......page 78
- Other Proposed Electric Interurban Railroads, 1890-1915......page 79
- Interstate Highway Routes, 1969......page 80
- State and national Highways, 1969......page 81
- Scheduled Airline Flights, 1969......page 82
- State Parks and Other Recreational and Cultural Attractions......page 83
- State Forests......page 84
- The Lincoln Hills......page 84
- Hoosier National Forest......page 85
About the Cartography......page 86
Most of the maps contained in this atlas were drawn specifically for presentation in this atlas. A large number were developed from federal government statistical materials, especially census data onpopulation (1960, 1966), manufacturing (1963), business (1963, 1967), and agriculture (1964) issued by the Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, Washington. Other than for a few statistical maps which are historical in nature, most maps utilize the latest census materials available in 1968-69.
Some of the maps in this atlas represent redrawn adaptations of existing maps, or they were compiled by fitting together elements found on two or more existing maps. Both cases apply to many of the physical maps including those on topography, soils, geology, drainage, mineral resources, water resources, and begetation. Other redrawn adaptations developed from one or more existing maps include those depicting Indian treaties, counties in 1816, population with a high school education, 16 and 17 year olds in school, personal and family income, early routes of transportation, railroads, interurban electric lines, and highways.
A few of the maps presented are neither original to this atlas nor were they redrawn for this atlas. These include: "Counties and Townships" (page 10), issued by the Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce (U.S.); "Physiographic Regions" (page 14), issued by the Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources (Indiana); "Physiographic Diagram" (page 15), drawn by the late Dr. J.E. Switzer, Indiana University; three of the maps under "Water Resources" (page 19), issued by the Geological Survey, Department of the Interio (U.S.). Major cartographic and statistical sources for all maps are cited in the reference list that follows.
The maps of business and industry (pages 44-59) were developed mainly from statistics in the 1963 Census of Business, the 1963 Census of Manufacturing, and the County Business Patters, 1967. These sources list statistics on a county basis and each map circle has been drawn proportional to others on the map on county basis. However, major circles are identified by major city names rather than by county names as it was felt city names as identification would be the most useful. Thus, as an example, Indianapolis is identified on many of the amps; the map circle symbolization, however, represents all of Marion County, not just Indianapolis alone.
Computer-generated maps in this atlas represent copies of printouts obtained through use of the facilities of the Research Computing Center, Indiana University. These maps were derived by using "SYMAP" or Synagraphic Mapping, a computer program developed by the Laboratory for Computer Graphics, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University. The program is written on a deck of approximately 5,000 punch cards. To produce each map, this deck was fed into the computer along with a tailor-made group of additional instruction cards.
Unlike many computer mapping programs, SYMAP products come from a printer rather than from a line plotter. Overprinting of letter and symbol combination produces increasingly darker gradational patterns. Thus the solid black areas on these computer maps were made by overprinting A, O, V, and X. On each computer map presented here, the data displayed by the map has been divided into five printer patterns which represent five distinct statistical zones.
Proper selection of the five data zones is a necessity for any map to be an effective visual and intellectual presentation. However, established guidelines for this choice are few. To illustrate the problem, three computer maps of "Population Density, 1960" are given on pages 32-33. The data used for each version was identical; only the data zones were changed. User impression of relative density of the state's population changes considerably between maps. Version #1 may suggest to many people a largely rural Indiana while Version #2 may suggest a largely urgan Indiana. Version #3 lies inbetween but is this the "best" version? Perhaps a version yet unmade might be better.
All the computer maps were greatly reduced from their original printouts. Unfortunately, the symbolization of some was too lightly printed to be clearly readable after reduction. The computer paper available to us contained extraneous lines which ran horizontally across the maps. These lines could not be eliminated completely even by diligent opaquing. They are particularly evident on the maps on pages 70-72 and interfere somewhat with easy reader interpretation of the map zones.
Major Map and Statistical Data Sources......page 88
- 7. Howard H. Peckham and Ernest M. Jackson (comp.), Historic Indiana to 1875 (map, Indianapolis, Indiana Historical Bureau, 1948; Robert C. Kingsbury, An Atlas of Southern Indiana Bloomington, Department of Geography, Indiana University, 1966, Occasional Publication No. 3, p. 19.
- 8. George Pence and Nellie C. Armstrong, Indiana Boundaries--Territory, State, and County, Indiana Historical Collections, Vol. XIX, Indianapolis, Indiana Historical Bureau, 1933, p. 147; Robert C. Kingsbury, op. cit., p. 20
- 9. George S. Cotttman and Max R. Hyman, Centennial History and Handbook of Indiana, Indianapolis: Max R. Hyman, 1915; and numerous individual county histories.
- 10. Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, U.S., Indiana Base Map (from U.S. Census of Population, 1960).
- 11. U.S. Office of Education, various publications.
- 12. Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources, Indiana, Topographic Map of Indiana, 1948.
- 13. Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue University, The Story of Indiana Soils, Lafayette: Purdue University, Special Circular #1, 1944.
- 14. C.A. Malott, "The Physiography of Indiana," Handbook of Indiana Geology, Indiana Department of Conservation, Publication 21, 1922.
- 15. J.E. Switzer, Department of Geology and Geography, Indiana University, ca. 1932. Copy of original drawing housed in May Collection, Department of Geography.
- 16. Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources, Indiana, Geologic Map of Indiana, 1956; with revisions by R. H. Shaver.
- 17. Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources, Indiana, Glacial Geology(map) of Indiana, 1958; with revisions by R. H. Shaver.
- 18. Geological Survey, Department of Interior, U.S., Indiana (state map), 1:500,000, 1950.
- 19. Flood Control and Water Resources Commission, Indiana, Principal Watersheds and Reservoir Projects, map in Progress Report, 1961, p. iv; Geological Survey, Department of Interior, U.S., United States: Water Resources Development (map), 1969; Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, U.S., Water Resources Investigations in Indiana, Washington, 1969.
- 20. A. W. Kuchler, Potential Natural Vegetation in the Conterminous United States (map), New York: American Geographical Society, Special Publication No. 36, 1964; A. W. Kuchler, Potential Natural Vegetation, United States (map), Revised edition of 1965, National Atlas Sheet No. 90, Washington: Geological Survey, 1967.
- 21. United States, Census of Mineral Industries, 1963, Vol. II - Area Statistics, p. 13.
- 22. Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources, Indiana, Miscellaneous Maps: No. 9 - Locations of Aggregate operations in Indiana, 1963; No. 10 - Locations of Sand and Gravel Operations in Indiana, 1964; No. 11 - Locations of crushed Stone Operations in Indiana, 1968; No. 13 - Bedford-Bloomington dimension limestone belt . . .1967; No. 14 - Locations of clay and shale operations in Indiana, 1968.
- 23. Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources, Indiana, Miscellaneous Maps: No. 7 - Southwestern Indiana showing locations of active coal mines, 1969; No. 8 - Showing Oil and Gas Fields in Indiana, 1962; No. 15 - Southwestern Indiana showing areas strip minded for coal, 1967.
- 24. Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce, U.S., Climates of the States: Indiana, No. 60-12, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1959.
- 25. Ibid.
- 26. Ibid.
- 27. Ibid.
- 28. Ibid; Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce, U.S., Climatic Summary of the United States - Indiana, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1956.
- 29. Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, U.S., U.S. Census of Population: 1960, Vol. I. Characteristics of the Population, Part 16, Indiana., Washington, Government Printing Office, 1962.
- 30. United States, 8th Census of the United States, 1860, Vol. I Statistics of Population, Washington.
- 31. same as p. 29.
- 32. Ibid.
- 33. Ibid.
- 34. same as pp. 29, 30.
- 35. Same as p. 29; Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, U.S., CurrentPopulation Reports: Population Estimates, Series P-25, No. 407, October 10, 1968, pp.5-7.
- 36. same as p. 29.
- 37. Ibid.
- 38. Geography Division, Cureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, U.S., Map Series GE50, Nos. 9 and 10, 1966.
- 39. Ibid., No. 8, 1966.
- 40. Ibid., No. 6, 1966.
- 41. same as p. 29.
- 42. Geological Survey, Department of Interior, U.S., Topographic Maps of Indiana at the scale 1:24,000, various dates.
- 43. same as p. 29; Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, U.S., Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, Vol. II. Population, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1913.
- 44. Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, U.S. County Business Patterns, 1967, Indiana, CBP-67-16, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1968.
- 45. Ibid.
- 46. Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, U.S. 1963 Census of Business,,Vol. 2 - Retail Trade Area Statistics, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1966.
- 47. Ibid; Ibid.
- 48. same as p. 44.
- 49. Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, U.S. 1963 Census of Manufacturing,,Vol. II - Area Statistics, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1966, p. 15.
- 50. same as p. 44.
- 51. Ibid.
- 52. Ibid.
- 53. Ibid.
- 54. Ibid.
- 55. Ibid.
- 56. Ibid.
- 57. Ibid.
- 58. Ibid.
- 59. Ibid.
- 60. Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, U.S. Census of Agriculture, 1964,Vol. I, Part II - Indiana, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1967, pp. 240-249.
- 61. Ibid.
- 62. Ibid.
- 63. Ibid.
- 64. Ibid.
- 65. Ibid.
- 66. Ibid.
- 67. Ibid.
- 68. Ibid.
- 69. Ibid.
- 70. Ibid.
- 71. Ibid.
- 72. Ibid.
- 73. Ibid.
- 74. Department of Conservation, Indiana, A Map of Indiana showing its History 1932, Indianapolis: Department of Conservation, revised edition 1959; Howard H. Peckham and Ernest M. Jackson, op. cit.; Robert C. Kingsbury, op. cit., p.19; E.Y. Guernsey, Indiana- The influence of the Indian Upon its History (map), Publication No. 122, Indianapolis: Department of Conservation, 1932.
- 75. Edward Vernon (comp.), Travelers' Official Railway Guide for the United States and Canada, New York: J.W. Pratt, June, 1869 (fascimile edition printed for the National Railway Publication Company, 1969); The Official Guide to the Railways, New York: National Railway Publication Company, June, 1969.
- 76. Emma Lou Thornbrough, Indiana in the Civil War Era, 1950-1880, Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau and Indiana Historical Society, 1965, pp. 350-1, map originally compiled from Henry I. Poor (comp.), Manual of the Railroads of the United States, New York: Henry Poor, 1880, pp. 689-690.
- 77. The Official Guide of the Railways in America, op. cit.
- 78. Cottman and Hyman, op. cit,, p. 165; G.W. Hilton and John F. Dull, The Electric Interurban Railways in America, Stanford: University Press, 1964; Wayne E. Butterbaugh (ed.), Atlas of Traffic Maps, Chicago: LaSalle Extension University, 1925; Jerry Marlette, Electric Railroads in Indiana, Indianapolis, Council for Local History, 1959.
- 79. Jerry Marlette, op. cit.
- 80. State Highway Commission, Indiana, Status of Interstate Highways in Indiana(map), Indianapolis: August 1, 1969.
- 81. State Highway Commission, Indiana, Official Highway Map, Indianapolis: 1969.
- 82. Official Airline Guide, August 15, 1969, Chicago: Reubon H. Donnelley, 1969.
- 83. Robert C. Kingsbury, op. cit., p.40; Indiana State Highway Commission, op. cit.
- 84. Robert C. Kingsbury, op. cit,, pp. 24, 29.
- 85. Ibid, p. 54; Hoosier National Forest (map), Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bedford, Indiana, 1966 (with corrections to 1970 by Roebert W. Blumer as supplied by Hoosier National Forest headquarters).
GAZETTEER....page 91-93 (exclusive of page 10)