from "Waila: The Social Dance Music of the Tohono O'odham." by Jim Griffith, pg. 186-204
In The Music of Multicultural America

Edited by Kip Lornell and Anne K. Rasmussen

1994, Tucson, Arizona. Southern Scratch. Ron Joaquin - bass and guitar; Sara Joaquin - percussion; Fernando Joaquin - saxophone; Jose Velasco, Jr. - drums; Richard Garcia - accordion; Brandis Joaquin - percussion; Jesse Puentes - guitar and bass.

Southern Scratch features a contemporary waila sound. By the mid-1950s both the button accordion and saxophone became common features of waila bands. The addition of electrical instruments and amplification paralleled electrification of the reservations following World War II. The typical line-up of a waila band consists of button accordion, alto saxophone, electric six-string and bass guitars, and drum kit. The majority of waila musicians do not read music but learn and play by ear. Several American folk and ppo tunes have been converted to a waila beat for dancing including "Turkey in the Straw," The Battle Hymn of the Republic," "Jesus Christ Superstar," and the "Flintstones Theme Song." (Adapted from CD notes by Ron and Angelo Joaquin, Southern Scratch, Canyon CR-8097)

Four musicians with guitars, drums and an accordian perform outdoors.
Onk Akmel, the Salt River Band. Photo by Jim Griffith.