Economic Development
   European Union
   Literature & Theater
   Memory & Identity
   Political Development
   Social & Ethnic Relations







Baltic - General
Kirby, David G. The Baltic World 1772-1993: Europe's Northern Periphery in an Age of Change. London, England and New York, New York: Longman, 1995.

Lieven, Anatol. The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Path to Independence. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Misiunas, Romuald J. and Rein Taagepera. The Baltic States, Years of Dependence, 1940-1990. Expanded and updated ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Norgaard, Ole and Lars Johannsen. The Baltic States after Independence. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1999.

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Economic Development

Aasland, Aadne. “Ethnicity and Unemployment in the Baltic States.” International Politics 35.3 (September 1998): 353-370.

Dale, Nick. “The Globalisation of the Latvian Economy Since 1991.” International Politics 33.1 (March 1996): 97-108.

Davis, Junior R. “Understanding the Process of Decollectivisation and Agricultural Privatisation in Transition Economies: The Distribution of Collective and State Farm Assets in Latvia and Lithuania.” Europe-Asia Studies 49.8 (December 1997): 1409-1432.

Gaugere, Kristine. Balancing priorities: Latvia's agriculture and rural development in a European Union context. [Riga]: Centre for Public Policy PROVIDUS, 2003.

Hallagan, William. “The Evaluation of the Latvian Banking Market.” Journal of Baltic Studies 28.1 (Spring 1997): 65-76.

Herslund, Lise and Mette Bech Sorensen. “From Employed to Self-employed: An Analysis of Entrepreneurship in Rural Latvia.” Journal of Baltic Studies 35.2 (Summer 2004): 126-148.

King, Gundar J. and Bruce W. Finnie. “Corruption and Economic Development on the Baltic Littoral: Focus on Latvia.” Journal of Baltic Studies 35.4 (Winter 2004): 329-345.

King, Gundar J. “Latvian Investment Climate.” Lituanus 40.3 (Fall 1994): 27-39.

Kancs, D’Artis. “Efficiency of European Funds in the Accession Countries: The Case of Transport Infrastructure Investments in Latvia.” Transportation Planning & Technology 28.4 (August 2005): 293-313.

Korhonen, Iikka. “Progress in Economic Transition in the Baltic States.” Post-Soviet Geography and Economics 42.6 (September 2001): 440-463.

Kress, Guenther G. and Randy L. Miller. “Public Administration Reform and Economic Transition in Latvia.” Humanities and Social Sciences, Latvia 2.15 (1997): 4-19.

Krisjane, Zaiga. “Latvia: A Centre-Oriented Country in Transition.” In Rise and Decline of Industry in Central and Eastern Europe: A Comparative Study of Cities and Regions in Eleven Countries, ed. Bernhard Muller: 131-153. Central and Eastern European Development Studies. Heidelberg and New York: Springer, 2005.

MacKinnon, Douglas and David J. Schaffner. “Firma Hebrona: A Private Enterprise in Latvia.” Review of Agricultural Economics 20.2 (Autumn, 1998): 602-611.

Muller, Katharina. “Old-age Security in the Baltics: Legacy, Early Reforms and Recent Trends.” Europe-Asia Studies 54.5 (July 2002): 725-748.

Nissinen, Marja. Latvia's Transition to a Market Economy: Political Determinants of Economic Reform Policy. New York, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

Richards, Anthony J. and Gunnar H. R. Tersman. “Growth, Nontradables, and Price Convergence in the Baltics.” Journal of Comparative Economics 23.2 (October 1996): 121-145.

Steen, Anton. “Consolidation and Competence: Research on the Politics of Recruiting Political Elites in the Baltic States.” Journal of Baltic Studies 27.2 (Summer 1996): 143-156.

Steinbuka, Inna. “The Alignments of Latvian Economy in the Context of European Integration.” Journal of Baltic Studies 31.2 (Summer 2000): 193-204.

Tisenkopfs, Talis and Sandra Sumane. “Rural Community Initiatives in the Latvian countryside.” In Mapping the Rural Problem in the Baltic Countryside: Transition Processes in the Rural Areas of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, ed. Ilkka Alanen: 219-248. Aldershot, England and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004.

Viksnins, George J. “Monetary Policy in Latvia.” Journal of Baltic Studies 28.1 (Spring 1997): 25-38.

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Batelaan, Pieter. “Bilingual Education: The Case of Latvia from a Comparative Perspective.” Intercultural Education 13.4 (2002): 359-374.

Bjorklund, Fredrika. “Ethnic Politics and the Soviet Legacy in Latvian Post-Communist Education: The Place of Language.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 10.1 (Spring 2004): 105-134.

Choumak, L. N. “Bilingual Education Models in Latvia: A View from Belarus.” Intercultural Education 13.4 (2002): 451-461.

Crawford, Alan N. “Bilingual Education in the United States: A Window on the Latvian Situation.” Intercultural Education 13.4 (2002): 375-389.

Galbreath, David J. and Mary Elizabeth Galvin. “The Titularization of Latvian Secondary Schools: The Historical Legacy of Soviet Policy Implementation.” The Journal of Baltic Studies 36.4 (Winter 2005): 449-465.

Housen, Alex. “Contextual, Output and Operational Variables in Bilingual Education in Latvia.” Intercultural Education 13.4 (2002): 391-408.

Karklins, Rasma. “Ethnic Integration and School Policies in Latvia.” Nationalities Papers 26.2 (1998): 283-302.

Pedersen, Karen Margrethe. “A Search to Merge.” Intercultural Education 13.4 (2002): 427-438.

Protassova, Ekaterina. “Latvian Bilingual Education: Towards a New Approach.” Intercultural Education 13.4 (2002): 439-449.

Silova, Iveta. “Bilingual Education Theater: Behind the Scenes of Latvian Minority Education Reform.” Intercultural Education 13.4 (2002): 463-476.

Silova, Iveta.  “De-Sovietisation of Latvian Textbooks Made Visible.” European Journal of Intercultural Studies 7.2 (1996): 35-45.

Silova, Iveta. From Sites of Occupation to Symbols of Multiculturalism: Reconceptualizing Minority Education in Post-Soviet Latvia. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, 2006.

Silova, Iveta and Guntars Catlaks. “Minority Education in Post-Soviet Latvia: Balancing the Legacies of the Past and a Vision for the Future.” In Multicultural Education: Issues, Policies and Practices, ed. Farideh Saliili and Rumjahn Hoosain. Connecticut: IAP, 2001.

Zogla, Irena. “Democratisation in Latvian Education: Teachers’ Attitudinal Change.” European Journal of Teacher Education 24.2 (2001): 143-156.

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European Union

Dorodnova, Jekaterina. EU Concerns in Estonia and Latvia: Implications of Enlargement for Russia's Behaviour towards the Russian-speaking Minorities. Series: EUI working paper. RSC  no. 2000/58. San Domenico di Fiesole, Italy: European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre, 2000.

Galbreath, David. “The Politics of European Integration and Minority Rights in Estonia and Latvia.” Perspectives on European Politics and Society 4.1 (May 2003): 35-53.

Herd, Graeme P and Joan Lofgren. “‘Societal security,’ the Baltic States and EU Integration.” Cooperation and Conflict 36.3 (September 2001): 273-296.

Johns, Michael. “‘Do as I Say, Not as I Do’: The European Union, Eastern Europe and Minority Rights.” East European Politics and Societies 17.4 (November 2003): 682-699.

Lainela, Seija. “Baltic Accession to the European Union.” Journal of Baltic Studies 31.2 (Summer 2000): 204-216.

Mikkel, Evald and Geoffrey Pridham. “Clinching the ‘Return to Europe’: The Referendums on EU Accession in Estonia and Latvia.” West European Politics 27.4 (September 2004): 716-748.

Muiznieks, Nils and Ilze Brands Kehris. “The European Union, Democratization, and Minorities in Latvia.” In The European Union and Democratization, ed. Paul J. Kubicek. London, England and New York, New York: Routledge, 2003.

Pettai, Vello and Jan Zielonka, eds. The Road to the European Union: Volume 2 (Europe in Change). Manchester: University Press, 2003.

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Dreifelds, Juris. “Average Life Span and Health Care in Latvia.” Journal of Baltic Studies 26.3 (Fall 1995): 253-266.

Helasoja, Ville, et al. “Trends in the Magnitude of Educational Inequalities in Health in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland during 1994-2004.” Public Health 120.9 (September 2006): 841-853.

Kalnins, Ilze V., Igors Puskarevs, and Ausma Golubeva. “Health Promoting Schools: A Quiet Revolution in Young People's Health and Education in Latvia.” Journal of Baltic Studies 32.3 (Fall 2001): 251-266.

Monden, Christiaan W. S. “Socioeconomic Health Inequalities in Latvia: a Cross-sectional Study.” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 32.3 (June 2004): 217-223.

Viel, Jean-François, et al. “Risk Factors for Long-Term Mental and Psychosomatic Distress in Latvian Chernobyl Liquidators.” Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 6: Radiation and Human Health (December 1997): 1539-1544.

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Bond, Dzintra. “Effects of Long-Term Exposure to English on Latvian Pronunciation.” Journal of Baltic Studies 26.4 (Winter 1995): 353-360.

Bond, Dzintra, Dace Markus and Verna Stockmal. “Evaluating Native and Non-Native Latvian.” Journal of Baltic Studies 34.2 (Summer 2003): 223-229.

Jirgens, Karl E. “Language and Decolonization: A Latvian Perspective.” Lituanus 44.3 (Fall 1998): 10-30.

Metuzale-Kangere, Baiba and Uldis Ozolins. “The Language Situation in Latvia 1850-2004.” Journal of Baltic Studies 36.3 (Fall 2005): 317-344.

Pisarenko, Olga. “The Acculturation Modes of Russian Speaking Adolescents in Latvia: Perceived Discrimination and Knowledge of the Latvian Language.” Europe-Asia Studies 58.5 (July 2006): 751.

Priedite, Anita. “Language Attitudes and Practices in Latvia.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 26.5 (2005): 409-424.

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Literature & Theater

Jirgens, Karl E. “Carnival of Death: Writing in Latvia since Independence.” World Literature Today 72.2 (Spring 1998): 269-281.

Kelertas, Violeta, ed. Baltic Postcolonialism. Amsterdam, The Netherlands and New York, New York: Rodopi, 2006.

Meskova, Sandra. “Two Mothers of Latvian Literature: Aspazija and Anna Brigadere.” Journal of Baltic Studies 34.3 (Fall 2003): 276-297.

Zeltina, Guna. “Latvian Theatre in the 90s: Trends, Repertoire, Personalities.” Slavic and East European Performance 17.1 (Spring 1997): 37-48.

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Memory & Identity

Gilbert, Emily. “The Impact of Homeland Independence on the Latvian Community in Great Britain.” Journal of Baltic Studies 33.3 (Fall 2002): 280-306.

Ginkel, John. “Identity Construction in Latvia's ‘Singing Revolution’: Why Inter-Ethnic Conflict Failed to Occur.” Nationalities Papers 30.3 (September 2002): 403-433.

Hinkle, Maija. “Latvian-Americans in the Post-Soviet Era: Cultural Factors on Return Migration in Oral History Interviews.” Journal of Baltic Studies 37.1 (Spring 2006): 48-65.

Skultans, Vieda. “Theorizing Latvian Lives: The Quest for Identity.” The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3.4 (December 1997): 761-780.

Skultans, Vieda. “Remembering Time and Place: A Case Study in Latvian Narrative.” Oral History 26.1 (Spring 1998): 55-63.

Skultans, Vieda. The Testimony of Lives: Narrative and Memory in Post-Soviet Latvia. London, England: Routledge, 1998.

Urtans, Juris and Guntis Enins. “Latvian Sandstone Caves as Cultural Phenomena.” Journal of Baltic Studies 32.1 (Spring 2001): 95-99.

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Political Development

Aasland, Aadne. “Citizenship Status and Social Exclusion in Estonia and Latvia.” Journal of Baltic Studies 33.1 (2002): 57-77.

Aasland, Aadne and Tone Flotten. “Ethnicity and Social Exclusion in Estonia and Latvia.” Europe-Asia Studies 53.7 (Nov., 2001): 1023-1049.

Cichock, Mark A. “Interdependence and Manipulation in the Russian-Baltic Relationship: 1993-97.” Journal of Baltic Studies 30.2 (Summer 1999): 89-116.

Dreifelds, Juris. Latvia in Transition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Dribins, Leo. “A Nation State and its Ethnic Politics.” Humanities and Social Sciences, Latvia 2.3 (1994): 70-93.

Eglitis, Diana Stukuls. “Imagining the Nation: Campaign Posters of the First Postcommunist Elections in Latvia.” East European Politics and Societies 11.1 (Winter 1997): 131-154.

Eglitis, Daina Stukuls. Imagining the Nation: History, Modernity and Revolution in Latvia. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002.

Karklins, Rasma. “Breaking the Shackles: Latvia after the USSR.” Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 2.1 (Winter 1994): 155-164.

Karklins, Rasma. Ethnopolitics and Transition to Democracy: The Collapse of the USSR and Latvia. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Karklins, Rasma and Zepa, Brigita. “Political Participation in Latvia 1987-2001.” Journal of Baltic Studies 32.4 (Winter 2001): 334-346.

King, Gundar J., Edvins Vanags, Inga Vilka, and David E. McNabb. “Local Government Reforms in Latvia, 1990-2003: Transition to a Democratic Society.” Public Administration 82.4 (Winter 2004): 931-950.

Koht, Harald. “New Public Management in Latvia: Variations in Openness to Customer Requests in Public Agencies.” Journal of Baltic Studies 34.2 (Summer 2003): 180-196.

Kolsto, Pal, ed. Nation-building and Ethnic Integration in Post-Soviet Societies: An Investigation of Latvia and Kazakstan. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1999.

Kolsto, Pal and Boris Tsilevich. “Patterns of Nation Building and Political Integration in a Bifurcated Postcommunist State: Ethnic Aspects of Parliamentary Elections in Latvia.” East European Politics and Societies 11.2 (Spring 1997): 366-391.

Makarychev, Andrey. “Pskov at the Crossroads of Russia's Trans-border Relations with Estonia and Latvia: Between Provinciality and Marginality.” Europe-Asia Studies 57.3 (May 2005): 481-500.

Morris, Helen M. “President, Party and Nationality Policy in Latvia, 1991-1999.” Europe-Asia Studies 56.4 (June 2004): 543-569.

Ostrovska, Ilze. “The Recruitment of Political Elite: Peculiarities of Transition in Latvia.” European Legacy 1.1 (March 1996): 362-368.

Pabriks, Artis and Aldis Purs. Latvia: The Challenges of Change. London, England and New York, New York: Routledge, 2001.

Patrick, John J. “Representative Democracy in Latvia: The Elections of 1995 and 1996.” Social Education 60.7 (November-December 1996): 420-423.

Penikis, Andrejs. “The Third Awakening Begins: The Birth of the Latvian Popular Front, June 1988 to August 1988.” Journal of Baltic Studies 27.4 (Winter 1996): 261-290.

Pettai, Vello. “Ethnopolitics in Constitutional Courts: Estonia and Latvia Compared.” East European Constitutional Review 4.1 (Fall/Winter 2002): 101-105.

Pettai, Vello and Marcus Kreuzer. “Party Politics in the Baltic States: Social Bases and Institutional Context.” East European Politics and Societies 13.1 (Winter 1999) 148-189.

Plakans, Andrejs. “Democratization and Political Participation in Postcommunist Societies: the Case of Latvia.” In The Consolidation of Democracy in East-Central Europe, Series: Democratization and Authoritarianism in Postcommunist Societies, 1, ed. Karen Dawisha & Bruce Parrott, 245-289. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Porter, David O., Gundar J. King, and Edvins Vanags. “Latvians on the Road to Market Democracy.” International Journal of Public Administration 20.3 (March 1997): 681-716.

Rose, Richard. “Rights and Obligations in the Baltic States.” East European Constitutional Review 6.1 (Winter 1997): 35-43.

Saleniece, Irena and Sergei Kuznetsovs. “Nationality Policy, Education and the Russian Question in Latvia Since 1918.” In Ethnicity and Nationalism in Russia, the CIS and the Baltic States, ed. Christopher Williams and Thanasis D. Sfikas: 236-264. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999.

Smith, Graham. “When Nations Challenge and Nations Rule: Estonia and Latvia as Ethnic Democracies.” International Politics 33.1 (March 1996): 27-43.

Smith-Sivertsen, Hermann. “Why Bigger Party Membership Organisations in Lithuania than in Latvia 1995-2000?” East European Quarterly 38.2 (Summer 2004): 215-259.

Steen, Anton. Between Past and Future: Elites, Democracy and the State in Post-Communist Countries: A Comparison of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing Company, 1997.

Tabuns, Aivars, ed. National, State and Regime Identity in Latvia. Riga: Baltic Study Center, 2001.

Vanags, Edvins, Howard R. Balanoff, and John F. Lauletta, Jr. “After the Fall of the Soviet Union: The Changing Status of Local Governments in the Republic of Latvia.” International Journal of Public Administration 22.1 (1999): 135-169.

Vebers, Elmars, ed. Integracija un etnopolitika. Riga: Jumava, 2001. [Articles or summaries in Latvian, English, or Russian.]

Zepa, Brigita, Carol Schmid, and Arta Snipe. “Language Policy and Ethnic Tensions in Quebec and Latvia.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 45.3/4 (July-September 2004): 231-252.

Zepa, Brigita, et al. Ethnopolitical Tension in Latvia: Looking for the Conflict Solution. Riga: Baltic Institute of Social Sciences, 2005.

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Ceica, Ilona and Ligita Vasermane. “Latvian Law Guide.” International Journal of Legal Information 31.1 (Winter 2003): 20-46.

Latvijas statistikas gadagramata (Statistical yearbook of Latvia). Riga: Latvijas Valsts statistikas komiteja, 1991-. [In Latvian and English]

Plakans, Andrejs. Historical Dictionary of Latvia. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1997.

Plakans, Andrejs. The Latvians: A Short History. Studies of Nationalities. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1995.

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Bruce, Steve. “The Supply-Side Model of Religion: The Nordic and Baltic States.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 39.1 (March 2000): 32-46.

Filipsone, Anta. “Time of Uncertain Conversions: Religious Education in Public Schools of the Post-Soviet Latvia.” Religious Education 100.1 (Winter 2005): 52-66.

Karklins, Rasma and Brigita Zepa. “Religious-centered Multiethnic Societies: Multiple Identities and Ethnopolitics in Latvia.” American Behavioral Scientist 40.1 (September 1996): 33-45.

Taivans, Leons G. “Reflections on the 'Invisible' Religion of Youth: The Case of Latvia.” Religion in Eastern Europe 17.6 (December 1997): 41-47.

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Social & Ethnic Relations

Commercio, Michele E. “Exiles in the Near Abroad: The Russian Minorities in Latvia and Kyrgyzstan.” Problems of Post-Communism 51.6 (November-December 2004): 23-32.

Eglite, Daina Stukuls. “Body of the Nation: Mothering, Prostitution, and Women's Place in Postcommunist Latvia.” Slavic Review 58.3 (Autumn 1999): 537-558.

Eglite, Parsla. “Latvian Women and Men in Dialogue.” Humanities and Social Sciences, Latvia 1.18 (1998): 4-25.

King, Gundar J., Thad J. Barnowe, and Svetlana Bankovskaya. “Complementary and Conflicting Personal Values of Russophone Managers in Latvia.” Journal of Baltic Studies 25.3 (Fall 1994): 249-272.

Kronenfeld, Daniel A. “The Effects of Interethnic Contact on Ethnic Identity: Evidence from Latvia.” Post-Soviet Affairs 21.3 (2005): 247-277.

Monden, Christiaan W. S. and Jeroen Smits. “Ethnic Intermarriage in Times of Social Change: The Case of Latvia.” Demography 42.2 (May 2005): 323-345.

Novikova, Irina. “Women in Latvia Today: Changes and Experiences.” Canadian Woman Studies = Les cahiers de la femme 16.1 (Winter 1995): 27-31.

Novikova, Irina. “Women’s Studies in Latvia.” Women's Studies Quarterly 24.1-2 (Spring/Summer 1996): 438-448.

Tuna, Aija. “Gender Equality in Latvian Schools: Is This Important?” Humanities and Social Sciences, Latvia 1.18 (1998): 73-82.

Zake, Ieva. “Gendered Political Subjectivity in Post-Soviet Latvia.” Women's Studies International Forum 25.6 (Nov/Dec2002): 631-641.

Zepa, Brigita, Liene Caplinska, and Inese Ozolina. “Latvian Women in the Labour Market: Attitudes and Behaviours.” Humanities and Social Sciences, Latvia 1.18 (1998): 34-49.

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Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization. Washington, D.C.: Quality Press of the Southern Tier Inc., 1992-.

East European Politics and Societies. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1987-.

Europe-Asia Studies. Abingdon, Oxfordshire, UK: Carfax Publishing, 1993-.

Humanities and Social Sciences, Latvia. Riga: University of Latvia, 1993-.

Intercultural Education. London, England: Carfax Publishing, 2000-. [Special issue devoted to Latvia: 13.4 (December 2002).]

Journal of Baltic Studies. Brooklyn, New York: Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies, 1972-.

Lituanus. Champaign, Illinois: Lithuanian Student Association, Secretariate for External Relations, 1954-.

Nationalities Papers. Charleston, Illinois: Association for the Study of Nationalities, 1972-.

Post-Soviet Affairs. Silver Spring, Maryland: V.H. Winston & Son, Inc., 1992-.

Slavic and East European Journal. Tucson, Arizona: American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages, 1957-.

Slavic Review. Seattle, Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, 1961-.

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Compiled and edited by Sarah Fogleman, March 22, 2007