American Historical Review Digital Primary Sources

Since 2016, each issue of the American Historical Review has included a short list of websites that contain freely available digital primary sources. This website reproduces that list (with minor edits), including the site's geographic category as it appeared in the AHR and brief blurb associated with each site.

Please note:

  1. The text of the blurb is authored by AHR editors. Anything within quotation marks comes from the hosts/publishers of the linked website.
  2. Within each geographic area, the list is organized chronologically according to the earliest materials in the collection. Often these dates are approximate. For stylistic reasons, "C.E." has been left off most dates. Any B.C.E. date has been indicated as such; all other dates are C.E.
  3. Since February 2019, AHR issues have included podcasts, interactive media, and other non-primary source content. Only the primary source websites are listed below.

For any corrections or to suggest a website for inclusion in a future AHR list, please contact me.

Banner credit: Let Them Have It All, And Be Done With It!, Cornell University – PJ Mode Collection of Persuasive Cartography (featured in the AHR February 2019 issue).

  1. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
    "The Timeline presents a thematic, chronological, and geographical exploration of global art history through The Met collection ... and currently comprises more than 1,000 essays, close to 7,600 works of art, 300 chronologies, and 3,700 keywords."
    Regions: World
    Dates: 8000 B.C.E.-present
  2. World Digital Library (Library of Congress; UNESCO)
    “The World Digital Library (WDL) is a project of the U.S. Library of Congress, carried out with the support of the United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (UNESCO), and in cooperation with libraries, archives, museums, educational institutions, and international organizations from around the world. The WDL makes available on the Internet, free of charge and in multilingual format, significant primary materials from all countries and cultures.”
    Regions: Global
    Dates: 8000 B.C.E.-present
  3. Endangered Archives (British Library; Various repositories)
    "The Endangered Archives Programme (EAP) facilitates the digitisation of archives around the world that are in danger of destruction, neglect or physical deterioration. Thanks to generous funding from Arcadia, a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin, we have provided grants to more than 370 projects in 90 countries worldwide, in over 100 languages and scripts.
    Since 2004, the Programme has digitised over seven million images and 25 thousand sound tracks. Archive types digitised so far include: rare printed sources; manuscripts, visual materials, audio recordings. This continually expanding online collection is available freely through local archival partners, this website and it is discoverable via the British Library catalogue, for research, inspiration and enjoyment."
    Regions: Global
    Dates: 1000 B.C.E.-2000
  4. Cornell Digital Witchcraft (Cornell University Library)
    "An online selection of 104 English language books" from Cornell University Library’s Witchcraft Collection, which "documents the earliest and the latest manifestations of the belief in witchcraft as well as its geographical boundaries, and elaborates this history with works on demonology; criminal law and investigation of criminal cases and social violence; the use of censorship, torture, exorcism, and the medical treatment of possession or madness; and sexuality. Especially after the late seventeenth century, many books express skepticism and recommend moderation concerning witchcraft beliefs, paganism, etc."
    Regions: Western Europe; United States
    Dates: 1400-1800
  5. Persuasive Maps (Cornell University Library; PJ Mode)
    Hosted by the Cornell University Library, this collection holds “more than 800 maps intended primarily to influence opinions or beliefs—to send a message—rather than to communicate geographic information. The collection reflects a variety of persuasive tools, including allegorical, satirical, and pictorial mapping; selective inclusion; unusual use of projections, color, graphics, and text; and intentional deception. Maps in the collection address a wide range of messages: religious, political, military, commercial, moral and social.”
    Regions: Global
    Dates: 1491-2012
  6. David Rumsey Map Collection (Cartography Associates)
    "Contains more than 150,000 maps. The collection focuses on rare 16th through 21st century maps of North and South America, as well as maps of the World, Asia, Africa, Europe, and Oceania."
    Regions: World
    Dates: 1500-present
  7. International Children's Digital Library (International Children's Digital Library Foundation)
    The purpose of this digital library is “to create a collection of more than 10,000 books in at least 100 languages that is freely available to children, teachers, librarians, parents, and scholars throughout the world via the Internet. The materials included in the collection reflect similarities and differences in cultures, societies, interests, lifestyles, and priorities of peoples around the world. The collection’s focus is on identifying materials that help children to understand the world around them and the global society in which they live.”
    Regions: Global
    Dates: 1505-2010
  8. Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (Emory University)
    Details of almost 36,000 transatlantic slave voyages, including information about vessels, enslaved peoples, slave traders, and estimates of the overall size and direction of the traffic.
    Regions: Americas; Africa; Western Europe; Caribbean
    Dates: 1514-1866
  9. Digital Transgender Archive (Various repositories)
    “The purpose of the Digital Transgender Archive (DTA) is to increase the accessibility of transgender history by providing an online hub for digitized historical materials, born-digital materials, and information on archival holdings throughout the world . . . By digitally localizing a wide range of trans-related materials, the DTA expands access to trans history for academics and independent researchers alike in order to foster education and dialog concerning trans history.”
    Regions: Global
    Dates: 1587-present
  10. The Baldwin Library of Historical Children’s Literature (University of Florida)
    “The Baldwin Library of Historical Children’s Literature in the Department of Special Collections at the University of Florida’s George A. Smathers Libraries contains more than 115,000 volumes published in the United States and Great Britain from the mid-1600s to present day,” and it includes comparative editions of popular children’s literature, as well as “alphabet books, marginalia and inscriptions, nonfiction from the 20th century, Little Golden Books, religious tracts, and illustrated editions from the Golden Age of Children's Literature.” This digital collection offers online access to these volumes and allows visitors to search for specific items or browse volumes by creator, genre, publication date, and publisher.
    Regions: United States; Britain
    Dates: 1722-present
  11. Anarchy Archives (Pitzer College)
    The stated aim of the curator (retired political science professor Dana Ward) is "to provide at one site the collected works of the major anarchists and an online history of anarchists and anarchist movements worldwide, including a graphics archive."
    Regions: Europe; England; United States
    Dates: 1783-1981
  12. Livingstone Online (University of Maryland Libraries; University College London)
    “Livingstone Online is a digital museum and library that allows users to encounter the written, visual, and material legacies of the famous Victorian explorer David Livingstone (1813–73). The site draws on recent scholarship and international collaboration to restore one of the British Empire’s most iconic figures to the many historical and cultural contexts in which he worked, traveled, and is remembered.”
    Regions: Africa; United Kingdom; India
    Dates: 1795-2009
  13. Moving Beyond "Rags to Riches" (George Washington University)
    This digital history project chronicles the late-nineteenth-century Irish emigration to America, especially focusing on the lost stories of New York’s Irish Famine immigrants. The collection includes over a thousand digitized original documents and follows the stories of four hundred selected immigrants, showing how they were able to survive and thrive in America.
    Regions: Ireland; United States
    Dates: 1840-1870
  14. What's on the Menu? (New York Public Library)
    “With approximately 45,000 menus dating from the 1840s to the present, The New York Public Library’s restaurant menu collection is one of the largest in the world, used by historians, chefs, novelists and everyday food enthusiasts.” The website includes images of menus and a growing collection of searchable transcriptions of the menus.
    Regions: New York; United States; Global
    Dates: 1851-2008
  15. Historic Mexican and Mexican American Press (University of Arizona)
    "Documents and showcases historic Mexican and Mexican American publications published in Tucson, El Paso, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Sonora, Mexico from the mid-1800s to the 1970s."
    Regions: United States; Mexico
    Dates: 1855-2004
  16. International Mission Photography Archive (University of Southern California Libraries)
    "The photographs record missionary endeavors and reflect the missionaries’ experience of communities and environments abroad ... The pictures document indigenous peoples’ responses to missions and the history of indigenous churches ... They also offer views of traditional culture, landscapes, cities, and towns before and in the early stages of modern development."
    Regions: World
    Dates: 1860-1960
  17. Colonialism and African Diaspora on Picture Postcards (University of Cologne)
    “The digital collection Colonialism and African Diaspora on Picture Postcards comprises 3,027 postcards showing Africans and African-Americans in the period of colonialism. It is based on the collection of a private person from Hamburg who released the scans for digitisation.”
    Regions: Africa; United States
    Dates: 1863-1964
  18. Wilson Center Digital Archive (Woodrow Wilson Center)
    "Collects the research of three Wilson Center projects which focus on the interrelated histories of the Cold War, Korea, and Nuclear Proliferation" and "contains once-secret documents from governments all across the globe, ... providing fresh insights into the history of international relations and diplomacy."
    Regions: World
    Dates: 1866-2010
  19. Hoji Shinbun Digital Collection (Various repositories)
    “The Hoji Shinbun Digital Collection is currently the world’s largest online archive of open-access, full image Japanese American and other overseas Japanese newspapers in Asia and South America. Image content in this collection is accompanied by OCR-generated text where possible, thus rendering the text searchable.”
    Regions: United States; Asia
    Dates: 1887-1955
  20. LA84 Foundation Sports History Library (The LA84 Foundation Library)
    “Created with a share of the 1984 Olympic Games surplus, LA84 began operations in 1985 as a grant making and educational foundation ... The foundation’s LA84 Sport History Library is a growing digital collection of more than 90,000 online documents on Olympic and general sport history,” including periodicals, Olympic Committee reports, and transcripts of oral history interviews.
    Regions: Global
    Dates: 1896-present
  21. American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee Archive (American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee)
    The JDC’s digitized archive provides online access to selected sources from its main archives. Those archives record the activities of the Jewish humanitarian aid organization in over ninety countries. The digital collection includes minutes, reports, correspondences, eyewitness accounts, speeches, press releases, news dispatches, telegrams, and passenger lists.
    Regions: Transnational
    Dates: 1914-present
  22. League of Nations Malaria Documents (World Health Organization Historical Collection)
    This portion of the WHO collection contains documents published by the Malaria Commission on the resurgence of malaria in Europe from 1924 to 1932.
    Regions: Yugoslavia; Greece; Bulgaria; Romania; Russia; Italy
    Dates: 1924-1932
  23. Lesbian Herstory Archive (Pratt Institute School of Information)
    This archive contains selected digitized audio cassettes and VHS tapes from the Lesbian Herstory Archives in Brooklyn, New York. These recordings have been digitized with the help of volunteers and the students and faculty of the Pratt Institute’s School of Information. These oral histories and other materials are organized into five thematic collections, each chronicling the lives and struggles of various lesbian activists, communities, and organizations.
    Regions: Caribbean; United States
    Dates: 1930-1993
  24. National Security Archive (George Washington University)
    Declassified U.S. government documents, primarily obtained through targeted Freedom of Information Act requests, pertaining to national security, foreign policy, diplomatic and military history, intelligence policy, and much more. All postings are curated by on-staff subject experts.
    Regions: World
    Dates: 1945-present
  25. The Year Book of the United Nations (United Nations)
    Digitized full issues of the Department of Public Information’s Yearbook of the United Nations. According to the website, the yearbooks include "the texts of all major General Assembly, Security Council and Economic and Social Council resolutions and decisions, and places them in a narrative context of UN consideration, deliberation and action."
    Regions: World
    Dates: 1946-present
  26. Anti-Apartheid Movement Archives (Bodleian Library, University of Oxford)
    The Anti-Apartheid Movement Archives is a digital archive of materials used by anti-apartheid activists in the United Kingdom and South Africa while the apartheid system was in place. Archived materials include posters, t-shirts, badges, and pamphlets created and used by members of the movement.
    Regions: Britain; South Africa
    Dates: 1959-1994
  27. American Soviet Jewry Movement (American Jewish Historical Society)
    "Center for Jewish History staff digitized and made available 78,801 images of archival material and 544 hours of audio recordings from the American Jewish Historical Society’s Archive of the American Soviet Jewry Movement. The Digitizing American Jewry Collection Project effort has made trip reports, photographs, posters, speeches, and ephemera openly available."
    Regions: United States; USSR
    Dates: 1960-1999
  28. Cuba and Southern Africa (Woodrow Wilson Center)
    Scanned documents about Cuba’s policy toward Southern Africa during the end of the Cold War. These Spanish-language documents were acquired by Piero Gleijeses for his book Visions of Freedom: Havana, Washington, Pretoria, and the Struggle for Southern Africa, 1976–1991 (2013).
    Regions: Cuba; South Africa; Angola
    Dates: 1976-1989

  1. Chinese Text Project (Donald Sturgeon)
    “The Chinese Text Project is an online open-access digital library that makes pre-modern Chinese texts available to readers and researchers all around the world. The site attempts to make use of the digital medium to explore new ways of interacting with these texts that are not possible in print. With over thirty thousand titles and more than five billion characters, the Chinese Text Project is also the largest database of pre-modern Chinese texts in existence.”
    Regions: China
    Dates: 1046 B.C.E.-1936 C.E.
  2. National Archives of Japan Digital Archive (National Archives of Japan)
    “Provides access to the descriptions and digitized images of the historical records preserved by the National Archives of Japan,” including millions of images of administrative and corporate records, culturally significant letters, maps, charts, and drawings.
    Regions: Japan; East Asia
    Dates: ancient-present
  3. Ghazni: Italian Archaeological Mission in Afghanistan (Gerda Henkel Stiftung; University of Naples “L’Orientale”)
    "Buddhist and Islamic Archaeological Data from Ghazni, Afghanistan." The digitized objects, which include coins, clay sculptures, potsherds, mural paintings, marbles, and alabasters, are supplemented by excavation journals, notes, publications, photographs, drawings, and digital renderings of findings.
    Regions: Afghanistan
    Dates: 100-1300
  4. Southeast Asia Digital Library (Northern Illinois University; Various repositories)
    “The Southeast Asia Digital Library (SEADL) exists to provide educators and their students, as well as scholars and members of the general public, with a wide variety of materials published or otherwise produced in Southeast Asia. Drawn largely from the collections of universities and individual scholars in this region, the SEADL contains digital facsimiles of books and manuscripts, as well as multimedia materials and searchable indexes of additional Southeast Asian resources. Nations represented in the collection include Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.”
    Regions: Southeast Asia
    Dates: 684-present
  5. Biblioteca Sineca 2.0 (University of Vienna)
    A digitized bibliography of "Western Books on China in Libraries in Vienna/Austria" and a smaller number held elsewhere, with links to digitized versions of most texts. Items are primarily in French, German, and English; were published from the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries; and include reference books, travelogues, and translations of Chinese classics.
    Regions: World; China
    Dates: 1477-1939
  6. Rare & Special eZone (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    This digital archive “is the search and retrieval interface for accessing publicly available digitized materials from the [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology] Library’s University Archives and Special Collections. The digitization work commenced in April 2013, and materials are continually being added . . . Materials which have been selected for digitization illuminate significant stages of civilization development in the East and the West, and highlight where they overlapped.”
    Regions: China; Taiwan; Global
    Dates: 1493-present
  7. Treasures From the 17th and 18th Century VOC Archive (Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia [ANRI])
    This site provides access to archives of the Dutch East India Company. The files focus on trade, personnel, logistics, and diplomatic affairs.
    Regions: Indian Ocean World; Dutch Republic
    Dates: 1612-1811
  8. South Asia Open Archives (JSTOR; South Asia Materials Project; Center for Research Libraries)
    “The South Asia Open Archives (SAOA), a subset of the South Asia Materials Project (SAMP), creates and maintains a collection of open access materials for the study of South Asia. This major collaborative initiative is aimed at addressing the current scarcity of digital resources pertinent to South Asia studies and at making collections more widely accessible both to North American scholars and to researchers worldwide.”
    Regions: South Asia
    Dates: 1838-1980
  9. Photo Library of the French School of Asian Studies (École française d’Extrême-Orient)
    “The EFEO [École française d’Extrême-Orient] Photo Library contains over 180,000 pictures. The materials used, a reflection of the evolution of photographic techniques, are of various kinds, including silver bromidegelation glass negatives, most of them stereoscopic; negatives; slides; silver and colour prints; digital images. The themes addressed illustrate the breadth of disciplines in which the EFEO is active, encompassing architecture, archaeology, epigraphy, ethnography, and art history. For historical reasons associated with the geographical locations of the EFEO’s original missions, Cambodia and Vietnam are particularly well represented in the Photo Library, as is, to a lesser degree, Laos.”
    Regions: South Asia; Southeast Asia
    Dates: 1866-2017
  10. Chinese Posters: Propaganda, Politics, History, Art (Chinese Posters Foundation)
    “This website aims to present Chinese propaganda posters through virtual exhibitions, theme presentations and a web-database. It also provides additional information in the form of biographical notes of poster artists, resources, etc.” The website is “continually growing to become an ever better showcase for one of the most fascinating chapters in the history of poster propaganda, and a visual chronicle of the history of modern China.”
    Regions: China
    Dates: 1925-present
  11. Ling Long Women's Magazine (Columbia University)
    This collection is a digital archive of over two hundred issues of the Chinese women’s magazine Ling long, which was published during the 1930s in Shanghai. The issues are digitized from cover to cover, featuring color images and the original Chinese texts along with a guide provided by the archivists on how to navigate the "unique layout" of a Ling long issue. This archive presents valuable sources for understanding the public and private lives of Chinese women during the Republican period.
    Regions: Asia; China
    Dates: 1930-1939
  12. The Nanking Massacre Archival Project (Yale Divinity School Library)
    "This web site provides access to first-hand accounts and photographs from Westerners who remained in Nanking after the Japanese invasion."
    Regions: China; Japan
    Dates: 1937-1938
  13. Korean War Propaganda Leaflets (North Dakota State University Archives)
    “During the Korean War, North Dakota native Albert G. Brauer served as Chief of the Projects Branch, Psychological Warfare Division, G3 section. He was responsible for overseeing the creation of propaganda pamphlets that were airdropped over North Korea. This collection contain propaganda leaflets produced by the United States Army as well as leaflets produced by the communist forces in Korea.” There are over one hundred items. The records are annotated with descriptions and translations of Korean text.
    Regions: North Korea
    Dates: 1950-1953
  14. "Beijing Spring"-Memories of the Chinese Democracy Movement, 1978-1981 (University of Vienna)
    Oral history interviews that Austrian sinologist and former radio journalist Helmut Opletal conducted with civil rights activists and other participants in the events.
    Regions: China
    Dates: 1978-1981

  1. Ecclesiastical and Secular Sources For Slave Societies (Vanderbilt University)
    "Dedicated to identifying, cataloguing, and digitally preserving endangered archival materials documenting the history of Africans and Afro-descended peoples in the Iberian colonies. ESSSS currently has projects in Colombia, Cuba and Brazil." The project has since added records from Spanish Florida.
    Regions: Caribbean; South America
    Dates: 1500-1900
  2. Birmingham [Alabama] Public Library Digital Collections (Birmingham Public Library)
    “The Digital Collections of Birmingham Public Library were created to preserve and make available the local history of Birmingham [Alabama] and the surrounding area. These resources may help students, teachers, genealogists, historians and interested citizens learn more about the history of Birmingham.”
    Regions: United States; Alabama
    Dates: 1500-2011
  3. Canadiana (Canadian Research Knowledge Network)
    “With the support of major memory institutions, CRKN [the Canadian Research Knowledge Network] identifies, catalogues, and digitizes documentary heritage—books, newspapers, periodicals, images and nationally-significant archival materials—in specialized searchable databases,” including Canadiana Online, Héritage, and Early Canadiana Online.
    Regions: Canada
    Dates: 1557-1920
  4. Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents (Creighton University)
    "This site contains the entire English translation of The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, originally compiled and edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites and published by The Burrows Brothers Company, Cleveland, throughout the latter part of the nineteenth century."
    Regions: North America
    Dates: 1610-1791
  5. Medicine in the Americas (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
    “A digital library project that makes freely available original works demonstrating the evolution of American medicine from colonial frontier outposts of the 17th century to research hospitals of the 20th century.” Materials include both popular and clinical works on subjects ranging from public health to alternative therapies, ethnic and racial diversity, and women’s health.
    Regions: United States; Latin America; Caribbean; Canada
    Dates: 1610-1920
  6. Hudson River Valley Heritage (Various repositories; Southeastern New York Library Resources Council)
    “Hudson River Valley Heritage (HRVH) is a digital library that provides visitors with free access to search and browse historical materials from the collections of libraries, archives, museums and historical societies” in the southeastern counties of New York State. “Partners are continually adding new material to the digital collections of photographs, maps, letters, postcards, manuscripts, scrapbooks, programs from events, memorabilia and ephemera, oral histories,” and more, constituting tens of thousands of unique items.
    Regions: United States; New York
    Dates: 1620-present
  7. Documenting the American South (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
    This collection contains texts, images, and audio files related to the history, literature, and culture of the American South. Sources are organized into sixteen thematic collections of books, diaries, posters, artifacts, letters, oral history interviews, and songs.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1624-2006
  8. Umbra Search (University of Minnesota; Various repositories)
    “Umbra Search African American History makes African American history more broadly accessible through a freely available widget and search tool,” and it offers “digitization of African American materials across University of Minnesota collections”; the site also “brings together hundreds of thousands of digitized materials from over 1,000 libraries and archives across the country.”
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1656-present
  9. Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project (University of Virginia)
    “An electronic collection of primary source materials relating to the Salem witch trials of 1692 .. . These resources include court records, contemporary books, and record books, as well as images of the original court documents, indexed according to various archival collections. The overview also refers to some of the notable people who played important roles in the trials and in the debate about the legitimacy of the trials. Users of the Archive may search the court records and contemporary books and letters for names of people involved, aided by a list of notable people and by a complete alphabetical list of everyone mentioned in the court documents. The Archive’s historical maps of Salem Village, Salem, and Andover show the locations of the houses of many of the people involved in the trials. The Regional Accusations Map displays the chronology of the accusations from February through November 1692 ... The Archive’s collection of literary works includes works by Hawthorne, Longfellow, Whittier, and Freeman.”
    Regions: United States; Massachusetts
    Dates: 1692-1893
  10. North American Slave Narratives (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
    "This collection includes all the existing autobiographical narratives of fugitive and former slaves published as broadsides, pamphlets, or books in English up to 1920."
    Regions: North America
    Dates: 1700-1920
  11. Early Amerian Manuscripts Project (New York Public Library)
    "With support from the The Polonsky Foundation, The New York Public Library is currently digitizing upwards of 50,000 pages of historic early American manuscript material. The Early American Manuscripts Project will allow students, researchers, and the general public to revisit major political events of the era from new perspectives and to explore currents of everyday social, cultural, and economic life in the colonial, revolutionary, and early national periods."
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1700-1800
  12. Music and Performing Arts in Colonial America (University of Hawai'i at Manoa)
    "Database of more than 53,000 newspaper articles, advertisements, and illustrations that refer to or include music, poetry, or the performing arts in British North America."
    Regions: North America
    Dates: 1704-1783
  13. Freedom on the Move (Various institutions)
    This is a research aid, pedagogical tool, and resource related to fugitive and runaway slave ads; “the ads constitute a detailed, concise, and rare source of information about the experiences of enslaved people.” The site includes digitized images of advertisements, and visitors can contribute by adding transcriptions and updating image metadata to aid others in future searches; searches can be narrowed by type of advertisement, runaway information, enslaver information, and time and place.
    Regions: United States; Canada; Mexico; Cuba
    Dates: 1704-1861
  14. Founders Online (National Archives; University of Virginia Press)
    Transcribed and annotated writings from "George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams [and family], Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison." The comprehensive collection contains thousands of items, including diaries, correspondence to and from, and other significant drafts and essays.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1706-1836
  15. Transcribing Early American Manuscript (Various repositories)
    “This digital archive houses sermons transcribed from the papers of Baptist, Catholic, Congregational, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, and Unitarian ministers who preached up and down the Atlantic coast of North America; it includes the manuscript sermons of white, Native American, and African American preachers.” Searchable by preacher, year, colony/ state, denomination, and biblical text.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1707-1820
  16. Digital Library on American Slavery (University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Various repositories)
    “The Digital Library on American Slavery is an expanding resource compiling various independent online collections focused upon race and slavery in the American South, made searchable through a single, simple interface. Although the current focus of DLAS is sources associated with North Carolina, there is considerable data contained herein relating to all 15 slave states and Washington, D.C., including detailed personal information about slaves, slaveholders, and free people of color.”
    Regions: United States; North Carolina
    Dates: 1751-1867
  17. Adams Family Papers (Massachusetts Historical Society)
    "The Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive presents selections from the most important manuscript collection held by the Massachusetts Historical Society. Digital images of the letters exchanged between John and Abigail Adams, John Adams’s diary, and John Adams’s autobiography are presented alongside transcriptions."
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1760-1804
  18. The Chung Collection (University of British Columbia)
    “The Wallace B. Chung and Madeline H. Chung Collection is an outstanding collection of archival documents, photographs, books and artifacts related to three broad themes: British Columbia History, Immigration and Settlement and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Donated in 1999 by Drs. Wallace and Madeline Chung, the Chung Collection is held at [the University of British Columbia] Library’s Rare Books and Special Collections.”
    Regions: Canada; British Columbia
    Dates: 1761-1996
  19. Georgia Historic Newspapers (Digital Library of Georgia)
    “The Georgia Historic Newspapers Archive is a project of the Digital Library of Georgia (DLG), a part of Georgia’s Virtual Library GALILEO and is based at the University of Georgia Libraries. Since 2007, the DLG has partnered with universities, archives, public libraries, historical societies, museums, and other cultural heritage institutions to digitize historical newspapers from around the state. The archive is free and open for public use and includes over one million Georgia newspaper pages between 1786 and 1986.”
    Regions: United States; Georgia
    Dates: 1763-2017
  20. Theodore Roosevelt Center (Dickinson State University)
    Contains various forms of Roosevelt-related archival material, including correspondence, diary entries, notes, political cartoons, photographs, and audio recordings.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1780-present
  21. Disability History Museum (Disability History Museum)
    The collection contains documents and visuals on the cultural and social history of people with disabilities.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1794-present
  22. Seward Family Digital Archive (University of Rochester)
    This archive contains comprehensive records of the correspondence of the Seward family, consisting of letters, bound volumes, photographs, and other miscellaneous material.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1801-1866
  23. W. E. B. Du Bois Papers (University of Massachusetts)
    "Over 100,000 items of correspondence (more than three quarters of the papers), speeches, articles, newspaper columns, nonfiction books, research materials, book reviews, pamphlets and leaflets, petitions, novels, essays," and much more.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1803-1999
  24. Post Family Papers Project (University of Rochester)
    Scans of correspondence, financial records, legal documents, and printed ephemera from Amy and Isaac Post, Rochester Quakers who were deeply involved in the abolitionist and women’s rights movements of their day.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1817-1918
  25. Blackwell Family Papers Digital Collection (Harvard University Library)
    Approximately 120,000 digitized items providing access to five generations of family diaries, correspondence, sermons, lectures, orations, and political speeches. These sources highlight the Blackwell family’s involvement in issues such as women’s suffrage, abolition, temperance, public health, and education reform movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Additionally, the site contains a digitized version of The Woman’s Journal, which was published by members of the family.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1821-1973
  26. Colored Conventions (University of Delaware)
    “From 1830 until the 1890s, already free and once captive Black people came together in state and national political meetings called ‘Colored Conventions’ . . . The delegates to these meetings included the most well-known, if mostly male, writers, organizers, church leaders, newspaper editors, and entrepreneurs in the canon of early African-American leadership.” The website offers “rare proceedings, newspaper coverage, and petitions that have never before been collected in one place,” documenting the work of both the men and the women involved in these conventions.
    Regions: United States; Canada
    Dates: 1830-1899
  27. The Liberator Files (Boston Public Library)
    Scanned images of all 1,803 issues of William Lloyd Garrison’s abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, along with a photo gallery and a site directory that links to thematically grouped material.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1831-1865
  28. The Walt Whitman Archive (Ed Folsom; Kenneth M. Price)
    Digital images and searchable transcriptions of Whitman’s published works, including the six editions of Leaves of Grass, as well as fragments, essays, letters, marginalia, and more.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1838-1919
  29. Hunt's Merchant's Magazine (Michael J. Gagnon)
    Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, of New York City, was the foremost national business newspaper of its day. While Google Books digitized the documents, its search engine is nearly impossible to use. This website organizes the links to the series in chronological order so they may be found easily.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1839-1870
  30. Thomas A. Edison Papers (Rutgers University)
    “Provides powerful search capabilities enabling users to search for over 25,000 individual and organizational names in a database of more than 140,000 documents. These documents encompass a period of rapid industrialization and growth in the scale of enterprise from the Civil War to the onset of the Great Depression. In addition to Edison’s well-known contributions to the development of electric light and power, sound recording, and motion pictures, they also document his contributions to many other industries; including telecommunications (telegraph and telephone), electric batteries, mining, chemical production, cement manufacture, and office and home appliances . . . In addition they provide extensive documentation of his family and of his role as a symbol of American ingenuity. Most of the documents come from the extensive archives of the Thomas Edison National Historical Park . . . In addition, there are documents from nearly 150 other repositories and private collections. The edition will eventually include Edison’s 1,093 U.S. Patents and over 500 motion picture catalogs produced by American producers and distributors between 1894 and 1908.”
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1842-2005
  31. The Voice of Industry (Public Domain)
    Digitized full issues of the U.S. labor newspaper Voice of Industry in scanned image format, plus transcribed material, as well as additional resource links related to labor history.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1845-1848
  32. California Digital Newspaper Collection (Center for the Bibliographical Studies and Research at the University of California, Riverside)
    “Contains over 1,500,000 pages of significant historical California newspapers published from 1846–present . . . It also contains issues of several current California newspapers that are part of a project to preserve and provide access to contemporary papers.”
    Regions: United States; California
    Dates: 1846-present
  33. Digitizing Immigrant Letters (Immigration History Research Center, University of Minnesota)
    Document scans of approximately one hundred handwritten letters written and received by immigrants to the U.S.
    Regions: United States; Europe
    Dates: 1850-1970
  34. PRISM: Political, Rights Issues, and Social Movements Collection (Floriday Atlantic University)
    More than 1,500 documents, mostly in English and mostly pamphlets, covering labor unionism, socialism, and communism in the Americas during the twentieth century. The collection is hosted by Florida Atlantic University.
    Regions: United States; Latin America
    Dates: 1850-1997
  35. Francis Willard Digital Journals (Frances E. Willard Memorial Library and Archives)
    Digitized transcriptions of journal entries.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1855-1896
  36. Historic Mexican and Mexican American Press (The University of Arizona Libraries)
    Document scans of printed material from twenty historic Mexican and Mexican American publications in English and Spanish.
    Regions: United States; Mexico
    Dates: 1855-1970
  37. The British Colonist (University of Victoria)
    Digital scans of all the issues of The British Colonist.
    Regions: British Columbia
    Dates: 1858-1950
  38. Oral History Center of the Bancroft Library (University of California, Berkeley)
    “OHC has carried out interviews in a variety of major subject areas, which include: politics and government; law and jurisprudence; arts and letters; business and labor; social and community history; University of California history; natural resources and the environment; and science, medicine, and technology .. . OHC has conducted over 4,000 oral histories, which totals tens of thousands of interview hours. Nearly every interview that has been transcribed is available for the public to read on the OHC website.”
    Regions: United States; California
    Dates: 1860-present
  39. Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project (Stanford University)
    “Between 1864 and 1869, thousands of Chinese migrants toiled at a grueling pace and in perilous working conditions to help construct America’s first Transcontinental Railroad. The Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project seeks to give a voice to the Chinese migrants whose labor on the Transcontinental Railroad helped to shape the physical and social landscape of the American West. The Project coordinates research in North America and Asia in order to publish new findings in print and digital formats, support new and scholarly informed school curriculum, and participate in conferences and public events.”
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1864-1869
  40. Western History Digital Photograph Collection (Denver Public Library)
    Contains almost ninety thousand digitally preserved photographs from the history of the American West. The library’s digitized collections also include a selection of maps, building plans, and art. Sortable by date, creator, and other criteria.
    Regions: United States; American West
    Dates: 1869-1969
  41. Carlisle Indian School Digital Archives (Dickinson College)
    The archive seeks to bring together, in digital format, a variety of documents and resources relating to the Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Sources include student files, images, publications, lists, and rosters.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1876-1917
  42. Haymarket Affair Digital Collection (Chicago Historical Society)
    Trial transcripts, police records, broadsides, newspapers, images, and artifacts related to the 1886 Haymarket Affair and subsequent criminal proceedings.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1886-1893
  43. Goin' North (West Chester University)
    Designed by students at West Chester University, this project recounts the experiences of African Americans who came to Philadelphia as part of the Great Migration of the early twentieth century. Digitized oral history interviews originally recorded in the 1980s are accessible on the site.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1900s-1970s
  44. Prelinger Archives (Library of Congress, Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division)
    Founded "to collect, preserve, and facilitate access to films of historic significance," it holds "approximately 11,000 digitized and videotape titles (all originally derived from film) and a large collection of home movies, amateur and industrial films."
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1903-2016
  45. Natives of Montana Archival Project (University of Montana)
    From 2009 to 2012, students in the Native American Studies Department at the University of Montana photographed and made available digital images of files from Record Group 75, Bureau of Indian Affairs, located at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. The extensive files include "letters received, copies of letters sent, reports, memoranda, minutes, petitions, leases, contracts, affidavits, applications, certificates, licenses, permits, bonds, wills, other legal documents, tables, circulars, accounting records, clippings, photographs, diagrams, and blueprints."
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1907-1939
  46. The Bisbee Deportation of 1917 (University of Arizona)
    “This site is a research-based collection of primary and secondary sources for the study of the deportation of over 1,000 striking miners from Bisbee on 12 July, 1917. Materials include I.W.W. publications, personal recollections, newspaper articles, court records, government reports, correspondence, and journal articles.”
    Regions: United States; Arizona
    Dates: 1912-1997
  47. Women Veterans Historical Project (University of North Carolina at Greensboro)
    “The Betty H. Carter Women Veterans Historical Project (WVHP), established at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG) in 1998, documents the contributions of women in the military and related service organizations since World War I. The WVHP includes a wide range of source material including photographs, letters, diaries, scrapbooks, oral histories, military patches and insignia, uniforms, and posters, as well as published works.”
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1918-present
  48. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project (Stanford University; the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia; and the King Estate)
    Digitized scans of correspondence, sermons, speeches, notes, diary entries, arrest reports, jail ledgers, and other documents authored by or pertaining to Martin Luther King Jr.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1929-1968
  49. What America Ate (Michigan State University)
    “What America Ate [is] an interactive website and online archive about food in the Great Depression, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.” The 1930s America Eats Project was created by the U.S. government as way to document American cuisine during the Great Depression, and “today, for the first time, America Eats sources that had been scattered across the country are digitized and fully searchable, along with almost two hundred local community cookbooks and thousands of food advertising materials from the 1930s.”
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1929-1942
  50. Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project (George Washington University)
    "ERPP online editions document ER’s prolific career as a journalist and public speaker."
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1930-1969
  51. Photogrammar (Yale University)
    This expansive collection of photographs by the U.S. Farm Security Administration and Office of War Information (FSA-OWI) provides iconic images from around the U.S. during the Great Depression and World War II (1935–1945). Visitors can navigate the collection with interactive maps and use data visualizations and other tools to search and organize the photographs by categories like geography, era, subject, and even photo composition.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1935-1944
  52. The Negro Motorist Green Book (New York Public Library)
    Digitized scans of 22 issues of the Green Book, published to aid African Americans in avoiding racial discrimination while traveling throughout the U.S.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1936-1967
  53. San Francisio Bay Area Television Archive (San Francisco State University)
    "The TV Archive preserves 6000 hours of newsfilm, documentaries and other TV footage produced in the Bay Area and Northern California from the Twentieth Century."
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1939-2007
  54. Historic Government Publications from World War II (Southern Methodist University)
    Scans of 343 printed U.S. government pamphlets, reports, and propaganda materials. Covers women’s issues, home-front race relations, conservation and rationing, soldiers’ guides to other countries, and more.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1940-1945
  55. The Secret White House Tapes (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
    “Between 1940 and 1973, six consecutive American presidents secretly taped thousands of their meeting and telephone conversations. These exchanges took place in the White House and in the Executive Office Building, at Camp David and at the LBJ Ranch, and during travel. From Franklin D. Roosevelt, whose infrequent recordings yielded only 8 hours of taped material, to Richard M. Nixon, whose voiceactivated system captured 3,400 hours of discussion, the White House tapes constitute a unique and irreplaceable source for the study of U.S. history and American government.” The site provides access to audio files and transcripts.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1940-1973
  56. Japanese-American Internment Camp Newspapers, 1942-1946 (Library of Congress)
    “Produced by the Japanese-Americans interned at assembly centers and relocation centers around the country during World War II, these newspapers provide a unique look into the daily lives of the people who were held in these camps. They include articles written in English and Japanese, typed, handwritten and drawn. They advertise community events, provide logistical information about the camps and relocation, report on news from the community, and include editorials.”
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1942-1946
  57. Cultural Equity Sound Recordings Catalogue (Association of Cultural Equality)
    “The Sound Recordings catalog comprises over 17,400 digital audio files, beginning with [Alan] Lomax’s first recordings onto (newly invented) tape in 1946 and tracing his career into the 1990s. In addition to a wide spectrum of musical performances from around the world, it includes stories, jokes, sermons, personal narratives, interviews conducted by Lomax and his associates, and unique ambient artifacts captured in transit from radio broadcasts, sometimes inadvertently, when Alan left the tape machine running.”
    Regions: United States; Global
    Dates: 1944-1986
  58. March on Milwaukee Civil Rights History Project (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
    This project includes photographs, news film footage, text documents, and oral history interviews, all documenting the efforts of activists and their opponents in the struggle over civil rights issues in 1960s Milwaukee.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1954-1968
  59. The Kent State Shootings: Digital Archive (Kent State University)
    This digital archive contains “audio recordings, photographs, artworks, and thousands of documents.” It focuses on audiovisual media from the shootings, also allowing visitors to search for media by geographical location, by sub-collection (e.g., photographs, audio, film, art, papers), by subject area, and by title.
    Regions: United States; Ohio
    Dates: 1955-present
  60. Freedom Archives (Freedom Archives)
    “The Freedom Archives contains over 12,000 hours of audio and video recordings which date from the late-1960s to the mid-90s and chronicle the progressive history of the Bay Area, the United States, and international movements . . . [the] collection includes weekly news, poetry, music programs; in-depth interviews and reports on social and cultural issues; numerous voices from behind prison walls; diverse activists; and pamphlets, journals and other materials from many radical organizations and movements.”
    Regions: United States; California
    Dates: 1955-2015
  61. Wearing Gay History (Various repositories)
    Wearing Gay History is "home to the digitized t-shirt collections of numerous lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender archives across the United States ... This project uncovers LGBT history outside the urban queer capitals of San Francisco and New York and in particular highlights the rich queer histories of the American Midwest and South."
    Regions: North America
    Dates: 1960-present
  62. "A Shaky Truce": Starkville Civil Rights Struggles, 1960-1980 (Mississippi State University)
    “This digital oral and public history project is an ongoing cooperative effort between faculty and students at Mississippi State University History Department and Libraries. The site narrates the unique history of Starkville, Mississippi’s civil rights struggles with particular emphasis on the local fight for school desegregation ... Through the use of digitized archival documents and oral history interviews, ‘A Shaky Truce’ highlights Starkville’s story and the voices of its participants in order to position this town and its people as critical reflections of this national movement.”
    Regions: United States; Mississippi
    Dates: 1960-1980
  63. Domestic Diversity and Other Subversive Activities: Liberator Magazines (Lowell P. Beveridge, Jr.)
    This primary source collection contains digitized copies of Liberator magazine, offering issues from March 1961 to October 1965, when Lowell P. Beveridge Jr. was the magazine’s editor. Visitors can browse individual issues, download the full collection, or browse an index of individual article titles and authors.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1961-1965
  64. Oral History Digital Collection (Center for Oral History and Cultural Heritage at the University of Southern Mississippi)
    Approximately 750 interview transcripts currently focused on the civil rights movement in Mississippi.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1967-2012
  65. The Health Policy Advisory Center (HEALTH/PAC)
    Full-text searchable digitized files of the Health/PAC Bulletin.
    Regions: United States
    Dates: 1968-1994
  66. Washington Prison History Project (University of Washington Libraries)
    “The Washington Prison History Project archive aims to provide researchers, policy-makers, students, and others with artifacts and documentation of the history and ongoing reality of mass incarceration in Washington state and the broader Northwest. It provides evidence of the robust civil society that exists within the state’s prisons and detention centers, as well as the complex linkages between prisoner organizing and the diverse communities that incarcerated people come from, return to, or are otherwise connected with. The archive gathers documents of and testimonials by incarcerated people about issues ranging from criminal justice and the urban condition to popular culture and the natural world.”
    Regions: United States; Washington
    Dates: 1975-2018

  1. Latin American Travelogues (Brown University)
    As part of Prof. James N. Green’s Latin American history courses at Brown University, “the goal of this project is to create a digital collection of Latin American travel accounts written in the 16th–19th centuries. The works selected are linked to critical essays produced by undergraduate students who are enrolled in Prof. Green’s courses on Latin American history. This site will serve as a free-access visual and research tool for students and scholars alike. The main purpose of the project is to integrate Brown’s Latin American special collections into the classroom; to introduce students to their research value; to promote them as an undergraduate research tool; to make them freely accessible world-wide; and to preserve them for a future generation of scholars.”
    Regions: Latin America
    Dates: 1500-1900
  2. Memoria Chilena (National Library of Chile)
    This collection offers digitized documents from the National Library of Chile, focusing on issues of cultural identity in Chile. This Spanish-language resource is multidisciplinary and provides a wide range of information and sources on Chile and Chilean cultural heritage, including primary sources, articles, literary manuscripts, photographs, and more; it can be browsed by place, theme, format, and date.
    Regions: Chile
    Dates: unknown-present(?)
  3. Biblioteca Brasiliana Guita e Jose Mindlin (Biblioteca Brasiliana Guita e José Mindlin)
    This repository contains an extensive digitized collection of items gathered by José and Guita Mindlin and housed at the University of São Paulo; it contains historical and cultural works related to Brazil, including literary documents, manuscripts, drawings, and maps. The Portuguese-language repository has items from the sixteenth century to the present day, with a large collection of nineteenth-century items.
    Regions: Brazil
    Dates: 1521-present
  4. Digital Library of the Caribbean (Various repositories)
    “Includes newspapers, official documents, ecological and economic data, maps, histories, travel accounts, literature, poetry, musical expressions, and artifacts. dLOC now provides access to 2.6 million pages of content related to the Caribbean . . . The founding partners—Archives Nationale d’Haïti; Caribbean Community Secretariat (CARICOM); National Library of Jamaica; La Fundación Global Democracia y Desarrollo (FUNGLODE); Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela; University of the Virgin Islands; Florida International University; University of Central Florida; University of Florida—officially established the Digital Library of the Caribbean on 17 July 2004.”
    Regions: Caribbean
    Dates: 1542-present
  5. Primeros Libros de las Américas: Impresos Americanos del Siglo XVI en las Bibliotecas del Mundo (Consortium of repositories)
    "A digital collection of the first books printed in the Americas before 1601 ... Of the 220 editions believed to have been produced in Mexico and 20 in Peru, approximately 155 are represented in institutions around the world."
    Regions: Latin America; Mexico
    Dates: 1544-1601
  6. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (Tulane University)
    This site contains links to open-access digitized sources on Latin America and the Caribbean. Links are categorized by either general region or country and include textual, visual, statistical, and miscellaneous sources.
    Regions: Latin America; Caribbean
    Dates: 1559-present
  7. Resgate (Biblioteca Nacional, Brasil)
    This site contains digitized versions of correspondence of the Overseas Archive in Lisbon related to colonial Brazil.
    Regions: Brazil; Portugal
    Dates: 1585-1833
  8. Slavery and Revolution (Cambridge University Library; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library)
    “This site uses a blogging format to showcase excerpts from letters written by Simon Taylor (1739–1813), a slaveholder and plantation owner who lived in Jamaica at a time when the institution of slavery dominated the economy and daily life on the island ... Each excerpt is accompanied by the full reference to the item from which it has been drawn in the Vanneck-Arcedeckne collection in Cambridge University Library or the Taylor Family Papers in the Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library.”
    Regions: Caribbean; Jamaica
    Dates: 1781-1805
  9. A Colony in Crisis: The Saint-Domigue Grain Shortage of 1789 (University of Maryland)
    "The website is designed as a digital document reader in translation, as it provides online access to primary sources in the original French, but also offers expanded content in the form of an historical introduction and English translation of each document, which are reviewed by the site’s Board of Advisors. The featured sources explore issues surrounding the grain shortage said to be threatening the colony of Saint Domingue in 1789."
    Regions: Haiti; France; Caribbean; United States; Atlantic World
    Dates: 1784-1791
  10. A Colony in Crisis: The Saint-Domigue Grain Shortage of 1789 (Various repositories; University of Maryland Libraries)
    “The website is designed to provide online access to both the French originals and the English translations of key primary sources dealing with the grain shortage faced by the colony of Saint-Domingue in 1789 . . . Alongside the French original, each translation is presented with a brief historical introduction to situate the reader in the time period . . . These pamphlets are primarily drawn from the University of Maryland’s Special Collections, although related items available at other institutions have been included as well.”
    Regions: Caribbean; Saint-Domingue; Haiti
    Dates: 1784-1791
  11. Aaron Thomas: The Caribbean Journal of a Royal Navy Seaman (University of Miami Libraries Special Collections Division)
    “The journal of Aaron Thomas .. . is a 374 page leather-bound volume containing approximately 367 pages of handwritten material. The journal .. . chronicles the experiences and adventures of a British seaman serving in the Royal Navy aboard HMS Lapwing in the West Indies during the French Revolutionary wars.”
    Regions: England; Caribbean
    Dates: 1798-1799
  12. Cuba Material (María A. Cabrera Arús)
    This project provides textual and visual sources documenting the history of Cuba from the colonial to the post-Communist period. Sources are categorized by period and easily searchable, with explicit focus placed on the Soviet, Socialist, and Cold War eras.
    Regions: Cuba
    Dates: 1800s-present
  13. Coleccion Puertorriquena (Sistema de Bibliotecas de la Universidad de Puerto Rico)
    This digital portal provides access to digitized primary sources and documentary information on the historical and sociocultural heritage of Puerto Rico, sourced from the Puerto Rican Collection at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus. Designed for both scholars and general audiences, this Spanish-language portal includes digitized newspapers, magazines, printed governmental materials, literary manuscripts, and a wide range of images, maps, drawings, and more.
    Regions: Puerto Rico; United States; Caribbean
    Dates: 1807-present
  14. Central American Broadsides (University of Kansas)
    This collection consists of broadsides that "are primarily Guatemalan, with a smaller number from Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. Many pertain to national and local politics and include election materials, political manifestos, and government pronouncements."
    Regions: Central America
    Dates: 1810-1960
  15. Latin American Pamphlet Digital Collection (Harvard University Library)
    "Scarce and unique Latin American pamphlets published during the 19th and the early 20th centuries ... that document the emergence of the Latin American colonies as independent states, and illuminate many aspects of their populations’ social and cultural life ... Chile, Cuba, Bolivia and Mexico are the countries most heavily represented in this collection."
    Regions: Latin America; Caribbean
    Dates: 1816-1916
  16. Sistema Nactional De Bibliotecas Costa Rica (National Library of Costa Rica)
    This site offers more than 120,000 editions of over 520 Costa Rican newspapers from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, such as ABC, Agricultor Nacional, La Verdad, and La Republica.
    Regions: Costa Rica
    Dates: 1834-2000
  17. Digital Archive of the Guatemalan National Police Historical Archive (The University of Texas at Austin)
    Digitized Spanish documents from the Guatemalan National Police Historical Archive.
    Regions: Guatemala
    Dates: 1870-1997
  18. Cultural Magazines of Latin America (Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut)
    Collection of digitized cultural magazines published in Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, and Puerto Rico.
    Regions: Latin America
    Dates: 1880-1930
  19. Caribbean Newspaper Digital Library (Digital Library of the Caribbean and the University of Curaça)
    Digitized versions of newspapers, gazettes, and other research materials on newsprint from the Caribbean and circum-Caribbean in Spanish, English, French, Dutch, and Portuguese.
    Regions: Caribbean; Circum-Caribbean
    Dates: 1884-present
  20. Documents of 20th-Century Latin American and Latino Art (Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas)
    CHAR(34),"Primary sources and critical documents tracing the development of twentieth-century art in Latin America and among Latino populations in the United States.",CHAR(34),
    Regions: Caribbean; Latin America; United States
    Dates: 1900-2000
  21. The Sandino Rebellion (Michael J. Schroeder)
    This website currently houses over 4,200 primary documents in an open-access, interpretive digital historical archive focusing on the period of the nationalist rebellion against U.S. military intervention in Nicaragua led by Augusto C. Sandino in the 1920s and 1930s.
    Regions: Nicaragua
    Dates: 1927-1934
  22. Digital Archive of Latin American and Caribbean Ephemera (Princeton University)
    A steadily growing collection of digitized pamphlets, flyers, leaflets, brochures, posters, and other ephemeral materials originally created by a wide array of social activists, non-governmental organizations, government agencies, political parties, and other types of organizations based across the region. Topics represented include agrarian and rural issues, arts and culture, children and youth, economics, education, environment and ecology, gender issues, health, human and civil rights, labor, minorities, politics and government, religion, science and technology, socioeconomic conditions and development, and tourism in Latin America. Materials from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, and Venezuela are currently the most abundant.
    Regions: Latin America; Caribbean
    Dates: 1947-present
  23. Brasil: Nuca Mais Digit@l Project (Various repositories)
    This digital project is an archive of hundreds of thousands of pages of legal and judicial proceedings collected after the fall of the Brazilian military dictatorship in 1985, many of the documents describing human rights violations against defendants and political prisoners. Over seven hundred cases have been summarized, and extensive photograph albums share police photographs taken while monitoring social movements.
    Regions: Brazil
    Dates: 1964-1985
  24. The Death of Che Guevara: Declassified (National Security Archive, George Washington University)
    This digital document collection contains “a selection of key CIA, State Department, and Pentagon documentation relating to [Che] Guevara and his death.” The now-declassified U.S. intelligence and military documents reveal “significant and valuable information on the high-level U.S. interest in tracking [Guevara’s] revolutionary activities, and U.S. and Bolivian actions leading up to his death.”
    Regions: Latin America; United States
    Dates: 1965-1967
  25. Latin American Posters Collection (Princeton University)
    “The posters included in this collection were created by a wide variety of social activists, non-governmental organizations, government agencies, political parties, and other types of organizations across Latin America, in order to publicize their views, positions, agendas, policies, events, and services. Even though posters produced in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Venezuela are the most abundant among the more than two thousand currently available in the site, almost every country in the region is represented. In terms of topics, some of the best represented are human rights, elections, gender issues, indigenous issues, labor, ecology and environmental issues, development, public health, and education.”
    Regions: Latin America
    Dates: 1970-2010
  26. Records Relating to Human Rights Abuses in Argentina (National Archives)
    “A Presidential Tasking from the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council (NSC) on June 13, 2016, directed various Executive branch departments and agencies, including the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), to search for records relating to human rights abuses committed in Argentina between January 1, 1975, and December 31, 1984, and to review responsive records for public access. In response, NARA assembled staff, including archivists from the National Declassification Center (NDC), the Presidential Libraries, and the Center for Legislative Archives to conduct this search and review.” This archive makes these records publicly available with a searchable interface, and it includes governmental intelligence reports, memos, letters, telegrams, and cables.
    Regions: Argentina
    Dates: 1975-1984
  27. Chilean Protest Murals (Harvard University Library)
    The Chilean Protest Murals Photograph Collection catalogues over five hundred digitized images of Chilean protest murals that were created during the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet, most of which were soon destroyed by government authorities.
    Regions: Chile
    Dates: 1983-1990
  28. Linhas de Luta: Cartos ao Presidente Lula (Various historians)
    This digital collection contains thousands of letters written to former Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003– 2010) following his imprisonment in 2018. Written in solidarity by citizens from across Brazil, “the letters, translated into English, French, Spanish, and Italian, are directed toward anyone in the world who is searching for other points of view about the tragedy Brazil is living today.”
    Regions: Brazil
    Dates: 2018-2018

  1. Europeana EAGLE Project (Europeana; Various respositories)
    The Europeana network of Ancient Greek and Latin Epigraphy (EAGLE) provides “a single user-friendly portal to the inscriptions of the Ancient World.” The catalogue includes over one and a half million images and other digital objects related to Greek and Roman inscriptions, with content pages offering translations and other historical information regarding geography, era, and materials; visitors can search for inscriptions by category or enjoy a virtual museum exhibition.
    Regions: Europe; Greco-Roman World
    Dates: prehistory-late antiquity
  2. Greek and Roman Materials, Perseus Digital Library (Tufts University; Various Repositories)
    Contains hundreds of textual sources that cover “the history, literature and culture of the Greco-Roman World.” The collection contains texts from dozens of authors, presented in transcription of their original Latin or Greek along with English translations, as well as images of buildings, coins, and other artifacts.
    Regions: Europe; Greece; Rome
    Dates: 700 B.C.E.-500 C.E.
  3. Ancient Coins (Dane Kurth)
    This numismatic resource provides high-quality images and detailed information on ancient and medieval coins, featuring Roman, Greek, Byzantine, Celtic, and English coins. Visitors may browse the collection by region, by era, by maker, or by other historical tracking data like minting and serial numbers; in addition to photographs, the site offers text descriptions identifying the figures and imagery on the coins.
    Regions: Europe; Greco-Roman World
    Dates: 650 B.C.E.-1887 C.E.
  4. Epigraphic Database Heidelberg (Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities; Various repositories)
    “The Epigraphic Database Heidelberg contains the texts of Latin and bilingual (i.e. Latin-Greek) inscriptions of the Roman Empire. The epigraphic monuments are collected and kept up to date on the basis of modern research. With the help of search functions specific queries can be carried out—e.g. a search for words in inscriptions and/or particular descriptive data. The search results are often displayed together with photos and drawings. The geographic focus is provided by the provinces of the Roman Empire. The total number of records rises continuously.”
    Regions: Europe; North Africa; West Asia
    Dates: 509 B.C.E.-830 C.E.
  5. Parthian Source Online (Jake Nabel; Cornell University)
    "Assembles and translates the precious few pieces of documentary evidence that survive from Parthian territory. It includes texts in Greek, Latin, and (most importantly) Parthian."
    Regions: Mediterranean; Middle East; Iran
    Dates: 148 B.C.E.-262 C.E.
  6. Fourth-Century Christianity (Wisconsin Luthern College; Asia Lutheran Seminary)
    Promotes "the study of the Church and its environment in the Fourth Century."
    Regions: Europe; Middle East
    Dates: 250-450
  7. The Index of Christian Art, soon the Index of Medieval Art (Princeton University)
    "In addition to the 200,000 medieval image and data records available by subscription, the Index offers subscription-free access to approximately 40,000 digitized slides of several personal research collections that are of significant medieval interest. These include historical photographs that document key European and Eastern monuments and notable works from a variety of periods and cultures."
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 300-1700
  8. Digital Scriptorium (Consortium of repositories)
    "Digital Scriptorium (DS) is a growing organization of institutional partners with collections of medieval and Renaissance manuscripts ... As a digital image repository, the DS website allows users to verify with their own eyes descriptive metadata about places and dates of origin, scripts, artists, and decoration."
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 300-1900
  9. Epistolae: Medieval Women's Letters (Various repositories; Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning)
    A “collection of letters to and from women dating from the 4th to the 13th century.” The site contains transcriptions of hundreds of letters. Originally written in Latin, they “are presented with English translations and are organized by the women participating. Biographical sketches of the women and descriptions of the subject matter or the historic context of the letter is included where available.”
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 300-1200
  10. Parker Library on the Web (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; Stanford University)
    “Parker Library on the Web [is] a digital exhibit designed to support use and study of the manuscripts in the historic Parker Library at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. The Parker Library is a treasure trove of rare medieval and Renaissance manuscripts, as well as early printed books. Almost all manuscripts in the Parker Library collection have been fully digitised and are available in this exhibit, along with associated bibliographic references and annotations made by scholars from around the world.”
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 500-1799
  11. Early English Laws (Institute of Historical Research; King's College London)
    This collection consists of digitized manuscripts of early English laws. The database seeks to provide introductions, commentaries, and translations corresponding to each text. The site will also include introductory essays on issues of law, language, archaeology, paleography, and codicology; descriptions of all manuscripts holding legal texts; glossaries in Old English, Latin, and Anglo-Norman; and a regularly updated bibliography and guide to the literature.
    Regions: England
    Dates: 600-1215
  12. Irish Script On Screen (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies)
    Digitized Irish manuscripts; the majority of the collected materials are either medieval in origin or copies of medieval texts.
    Regions: Ireland
    Dates: 700-1900
  13. Digital Medieval Manuscripts (Harvard University Library)
    "The Houghton Library’s distinguished collection of medieval and Renaissance manuscripts represents a significant resource for the study of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in Western Europe ... [T]his collection includes works in Latin, Greek, and most of the vernacular languages of Europe that are the primary sources for the study of the literature, art, history, music, philosophy, and theology of the periods."
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 700-1600
  14. Europeana Regia (Various repositories)
    “With the collaboration of five major libraries located in four countries and the support of the European Commission, this project made it possible to digitise more than 1000 rare and precious manuscripts from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. All of them were once part of three great royal collections that are currently dispersed and which represent European cultural activity at three distinct periods in history: the Bibliotheca Carolina (8th and 9th centuries), the Library of Charles V and Family (14th century) and the Library of the Aragonese Kings of Naples (15th and 16th centuries). These manuscripts are now fully accessible on the websites of the partner libraries and have also been included in Europeana.”
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 700-1600
  15. Penn in Hand: Selected Manuscripts (University of Pennsylvania)
    An ongoing project to digitize the Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts; provides bibliographic information, digital facsimiles, and detailed description of provenance for a large volume of manuscript codices, folios, documents, and papers in a variety of languages from Europe, North Africa, India, the Middle East, and China.
    Regions: World; Europe
    Dates: 1000-1850
  16. Digisig: Digital Sillography Resources (Center for Digital Humanities, Saint Louis University)
    Digisig is a search tool for more than 30,000 medieval seal matrices and impressions that survive in repositories in the United Kingdom and the United States. Users can search all or individual catalogues and repositories by shelf mark and catalogue identifiers as well as by motifs, names, and places associated with individual seals.
    Regions: British Isles; Western Europe
    Dates: 1050-1600
  17. Portuguese Early Music Database (Centro de Estudos de Sociologia e Estética Musical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa)
    Digitized manuscripts with musical notation in a variety of languages.
    Regions: Portugal; Spain
    Dates: 1100-1650
  18. Digital Pilgrim Project (British Museum)
    The Digital Pilgrim Project displays high-quality 3D models of "medieval pilgrim souvenirs and secular badges" that can be rotated for viewing from any angle. Each image is accompanied by a physical description and a brief exposition of the item’s historical context.
    Regions: Europe; England
    Dates: 1200-1600
  19. The Icelandic Saga Database (Various repositories)
    “The Icelandic Saga Database is an online resource dedicated to publishing the Sagas of the Icelanders—a large body of medieval Icelandic literature. The sagas are prose histories describing events that took place amongst the Norse and Celtic inhabitants of Iceland during the period of the Icelandic Commonwealth in the 10th and 11th centuries AD . . . The sagas focus largely on history, especially genealogical and family history, and reflect the struggles and conflicts that arose amongst the second and third generations of Norse settlers in medieval Iceland, which was in this time a remote, decentralised society with a rich legal tradition but no organized executive power. This website contains all the extant Icelandic family sagas, made available in a variety of open formats using modernized Icelandic spelling, with the Old Norse versions and translations into English and other languages made available where these exist in the public domain.”
    Regions: Europe; Iceland
    Dates: 1200-1400
  20. Icelandic Saga Map (Emily Lethbridge)
    The Icelandic Saga Map is an open-access online resource that helps readers navigate the geographical world of medieval Icelandic sagas and related material. To date, geo-referenced texts include all of Íslendingasögur (Sagas of Icelanders) and Landnámabók (The Book of Settlements), part of the Sturlunga saga compilation, and a selection of nineteenth-century “saga pilgrimage” travel books (e.g., William Morris’s Icelandic journals). The interface encourages users to move between text (in which all place-names are hyperlinked) and map, giving them a feel for the geographical overlap between texts as well as for how individual narratives play out spatially. In addition to expanding the selection of texts, projected future work includes adding information about saga manuscripts and their geographical provenance, uploading English translations of all place-names in the database, and optimizing search options for specific types of places.
    Regions: Iceland
    Dates: 1200-1400

  1. Heidelberg Historic Literature (Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg)
    Hosted and maintained by the University Library of Heidelberg, this vast historical collection contains digitized manuscripts, charters, incunabula, literature, maps, and drawings from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries, mostly including materials originating in Heidelberg and in Germany or German-speaking areas more broadly.
    Regions: Europe; German-speaking world
    Dates: 900-2011
  2. British History Online (Institute of Historical Research)
    "A digital library of key printed primary and secondary sources for the history of Britain and Ireland, with a primary focus on the period between 1300 and 1800."
    Regions: Britain; Ireland
    Dates: 1188-1870
  3. Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707 (University of St. Andrews)
    “A fully searchable database containing the proceedings of the Scottish parliament from the first surviving act of 1235 to the union of 1707.” According to the site, “the inclusion of new parliaments and conventions of estates, committee records, parliamentary minutes and additional material makes the online edition the most comprehensive record of Scottish parliamentary proceedings ever available.” The transcriptions “are fully cited and an extensive editorial apparatus included,” and “a parallel translation of the original Latin, French and Scots text into English and the standardisation of place and personal names, where identifiable, enables keyword searches on an infinite number of subjects, with direct links from the modern translation to the original manuscript record.”
    Regions: Scotland
    Dates: 1235-1707
  4. Treasure in Full: Renaissance Festival Books (British Library)
    "View 253 digitised Renaissance festival books (selected from over 2,000 in the British Library’s collection) that describe the magnificent festivals and ceremonies that took place in Europe."
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 1475-1700
  5. DigiBaeck:German-Jewish History Online (Leo Baeck Institute)
    Online collection consisting mainly of archival materials pertaining to German-Jewish historical experience since the seventeenth century. The site also includes thousands of printed and visual sources as well as audio recordings.
    Regions: Germany
    Dates: 1476-present
  6. Correspondance of William of Orange (Various repositories)
    "This project aims to present a complete survey of all the surviving correspondence associated with William of Orange (1533–1584). The term ‘correspondence’ is used in the broadest sense and includes not only letters that were sent to or written by William of Orange, but also commissions, petitions, instructions and speeches. Research for this project was carried out in almost 200 archives and libraries in the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, England, France, Italy, Austria, Poland, Spain, Vatican City, Sweden and Switzerland."
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 1533-1584
  7. The Breadalbane Collection (University of Edinburgh)
    “The Breadalbane Collection, an eclectic gathering of 16th century documents of the Campbells of Glenorchy, provides unique insight into Scottish life during the early modern period. The collection was edited by Prof Jane Dawson.” It includes hundreds of letters, supplemented with background information on subjects including sixteenth-century letterwriting, the history of the clan, local geography, and the authors’ choice of language.
    Regions: Scotland
    Dates: 1548-1583
  8. Bibliothèque bleue (Médiathèque du Grand Troyes; University of Chicago; Collaborative Initiative for French and North American Libraries)
    “The Bibliothèque bleue de Troyes represents a long and storied tradition in popular French print culture. Spanning more than 250 years and involving the publication of massproduced, inexpensive books that were sold to peasants for pennies by colporteurs (peddlers), the Bibliothèque bleue was comprised of texts ranging from the practical (recipes, almanacs, and how-to books) to the pious (hagiographies, prayer books, and other religious instruction) and to the entertaining (fiction, romans de chevalerie, songbooks, burlesque), providing a unique insight into the popular culture of 17th to mid19th century France. The most significant collection (some 2570 volumes) of Bibliothèque bleue material can be found at the Me´diathe`que du Grand Troyes, whose digitization efforts—digital page images of some 623 separate imprints— form the basis of the Bibliothèque bleue.”
    Regions: France
    Dates: 1592-1845
  9. Letters of Phillip II, King of Spain (Brigham Young University Library)
    “These letters from Philip II, King of Spain, mainly to Don Diego de Orellana de Chaves, Royal Governor of Spain’s northern coast, date from the time of naval war against England and France, 1592–1597. The collection itself is in the possession of the Special Collections Department of the Harold B. Lee Library . . . The letters have not been previously published.” Materials include “174 letters and documents, all in Spanish: 172 manuscript, 2 printed.” They are presented in facsimile and annotated with descriptions in English and in Spanish.
    Regions: Spain; France; England; Ireland; Scotland
    Dates: 1592-1597
  10. English Broadside Ballad Archive (University of California, Santa Barbara)
    "EBBA has made broadside ballads from many different holdings easily and fully accessible: gathered together on one site as ballad sheet facsimiles, facsimile transcriptions, text transcriptions, and recordings, and extensively catalogued. All ballads can be viewed via basic and advanced search functions."
    Regions: England
    Dates: 1600-1700
  11. The Hartlib Papers (University Library, University of Sheffield)
    “Samuel Hartlib .. . a great seventeenth-century ‘intelligencer’ and man of science, set out to record all human knowledge and make it universally available for the education of all mankind. His correspondence, which runs to over 25,000 folios of original materials, came to the University Library in the 1960s. The full-text electronic edition realises Hartlib’s vision some 300 years later. The project’s objective was to create a complete electronic edition with full-text transcription and facsimile images of all 25,000 seventeenth-century manuscripts.”
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 1600-1662
  12. Early Stuart Libels (Early Modern Literary Studies)
    "A web-based edition of early seventeenth-century political poetry from manuscript sources," edited by Alastair Bellany (Rutgers University) and Andrew McRae (University of Exeter). "It brings into the public domain over 350 poems, many of which have never before been published."
    Regions: England
    Dates: 1603-1640
  13. Key Documents of German-Jewish History Online (Institute for the History of German Jews)
    “This online source edition published by the Institute for the History of German Jews uses a selection of sources, so-called key documents, to thematically highlight central aspects in Hamburg’s Jewish history from the early modern age to the present. Transcripts as well as digital facsimiles are provided for all sources, which are placed in historical context by interpretations and background information. The source material is further enriched by information on its provenance, historical responses to it, and scholarly controversies. All content is provided in both German and English.”
    Regions: Germany
    Dates: 1603-2016
  14. The Newton Project (Oxford University)
    "An online edition of all of Sir Isaac Newton’s (1642–1727) writings—whether they were printed or not. The edition presents a full (diplomatic) rendition featuring all the amendments Newton made to his own texts or a more readable (normalised) version. We also make available translations of his most important Latin religious texts."
    Regions: England
    Dates: 1612-1761
  15. Delpher (National Library of the Netherlands)
    This database contains millions of digitized texts from Dutch newspapers, magazines, and books. Easily searchable, all texts are derived from the collections of various scientific institutions, libraries, and cultural heritage institutions.
    Regions: Western Europe
    Dates: 1618-1995
  16. The Down Survey of Ireland (Trinity College Dublin)
    “Taken in the years 1656–1658, the Down Survey of Ireland is the first ever detailed land survey on a national scale anywhere in the world. The survey sought to measure all the land to be forfeited by the Catholic Irish in order to facilitate its redistribution to Merchant Adventurers and English soldiers. Copies of these maps have survived in dozens of libraries and archives throughout Ireland and Britain, as well as in the National Library of France. This Project has brought together for the first time in over 300 years all the surviving maps, digitised them and made them available as a public online resource ... The Down Survey Maps section comprises digital images of all the surviving Down Survey maps at parish, barony and county level. The written descriptions (terrier) of each barony and parish that accompanied the original maps have also been included. The second section, Historical GIS, brings together the maps and related contemporaneous sources—Books of Survey and Distribution, the 1641 Depositions, the 1659 Census—in a Geographical Information System (GIS). All these sources have been georeferenced with 19th-century Ordnance Survey maps, Google Maps and satellite imagery.” It can be searched for landowner by name, landownership by religion, and murders in the 1641 rebellion.
    Regions: Ireland
    Dates: 1641-1670
  17. 1641 Depositions (Manuscripts and Archives Research Library of Trinity College Dublin)
    “Fully searchable digital edition of the 1641 Depositions at Trinity College Dublin Library, comprising transcripts and images of all 8,000 depositions, examinations and associated materials.” The depositions are “witness testimonies mainly by Protestants, but also by some Catholics, from all social backgrounds, concerning their experiences of the 1641 Irish rebellion. The testimonies document the loss of goods, military activity, and the alleged crimes committed by the Irish insurgents.” Readers must create an account to view the depositions.
    Regions: Ireland
    Dates: 1641-1653
  18. The Database of Court Officers, 1660-1837 (R. O. Bucholz)
    Contains "the career histories of every remunerated officer and servant of the English Royal household from the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 to the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837."
    Regions: England
    Dates: 1660-1837
  19. The Proceedings of the Old Bailey (Project Directors Clive Emsley, Tim Hitchcock, and Robert Shoemaker; Project Manager Sharon Howard)
    A digital archive containing the records of 197,745 criminal trials held at the Old Bailey, London’s central criminal court. This fully searchable database also includes the biographical details of roughly 2,500 men and women executed at Tyburn.
    Regions: London
    Dates: 1674-1913
  20. The Comédie-Française Registers Project (Comédie-Française)
    This project provides digitized access to the daily receipt registers and a selection of other administrative records belonging to the French theater troupe Com´edie-Fran¸caise. Additionally, a fully searchable database derived from these registers allows one to study the attendance patterns of plays performed by this troupe.
    Regions: Paris
    Dates: 1680-1793
  21. London Lives, 1690-1800: Crime, Poverty, And Social Policy in The Metropolis (University of Sheffield)
    A searchable compilation of eight archives and fifteen databases, which generate 3.35 million names of individuals living in London during the eighteenth century. In addition to primary source data, the website includes a wiki and allows researchers to register for a personal online workspace that can be used to build biographies from the data.
    Regions: London; England
    Dates: 1690-1800
  22. Dissenting Academies Online: Virtual Library System (Queen Mary Centre for Religion and Literature in English)
    "A union catalogue which represents the holdings and loans of selected dissenting academies in England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It has been compiled from a range of sources, including historic catalogues, shelf lists, loan registers, and surviving books from the academy libraries."
    Regions: England
    Dates: 1700-1900
  23. Central Jewish Library (Central Jewish Library)
    This site “is one of the major world repositories of digitized Judaica, available for free via the Internet. The CJL presents books, works of art, old prints, manuscripts, archival materials, ephemera, and newspapers, housed by the Emanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw.” Its holdings include “the Ringelblum Archive, the Underground Archive of the Warsaw Ghetto, a priceless collection of over 35,000 documents registered by UNESCO as a part of the Memory of the World program,” in addition to an expanding range of other archival and published materials. The site is available in both Polish and English, though most metadata is in Polish, and it includes documents in Polish, Yiddish, German, and many other languages.
    Regions: Poland
    Dates: 1700-2000
  24. The Linnaean Correspondance (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences)
    "The ultimate objective of the Linnaean correspondence is to publish the complete text of the letters sent and received by Linnaeus, together with summaries in English. Facsimiles of the original manuscripts and of selected printed editions will be provided ... The texts and the summaries are searchable, as is the database."
    Regions: Europe; Sweden
    Dates: 1707-1778
  25. Basel Mission Archives (Basel Mission/Mission 21, Basel, Switzerland)
    Interactive online collection consisting of high-resolution photographs, maps, and references to texts archived in Basel. Most of these materials document missionary encounters in China, India, the Americas, Ghana, Cameroon, and Kalimantan in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
    Regions: World; Africa; Asia; Europe
    Dates: 1716-present
  26. The Collected Poems of Gavin Turnbull (University of South Carolina)
    "Presents the first-ever full collection of writings by the Scottish poet Gavin Turnbull. It includes the writings he published both in Scotland and later in America."
    Regions: Scotland; United States
    Dates: 1788-1809
  27. The Municipal Archives of Lorient (Les Archives de Lorient)
    The Municipal Archives of Lorient is a French-language digital resource on the history of the city of Lorient, offering documents, images, and other media archived and digitized from the eighteenth century to the beginning of the twenty-first century. The archive contains a number of digitized records, including parish records; birth, marriage, and death records from 1793 to 2002; census documents and electoral records; and fascinating municipal correspondence between officials and residents. A search engine can be used to find information or media on specific buildings, places, people, and organizations from Lorient’s history; visitors to the archive can also search for records by author.
    Regions: France; Lorient
    Dates: 1793-present
  28. Delet Portal (Jewish Historical Institute)
    This portal presents key documents held in the archives of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, Poland, and digitized for that institution’s online Central Jewish Library. Delet features collections such as nineteenth- and twentieth-century Polish Jewish art, as well as the underground organization Oneg Shabbat’s secret archive, assembled in the Warsaw Ghetto to document the Holocaust. The site is available in both Polish and English and allows visitors to create their own collections of documents for research and teaching.
    Regions: Poland
    Dates: 1800-2000
  29. Prozhito (Various repositories)
    Transcriptions of thousands of Russian-language and dozens of Ukrainian-language diaries, searchable by date of composition, keyword, and sex and age of author. Items are annotated with biographical information about the diarists and references to published editions of the entries.
    Regions: Russian Empire; Soviet Union; Russian Federation
    Dates: 1804-1999
  30. Carlyle Letters Online (Duke University Press)
    "The Carlyle Letters Online features thousands of letters written by Scottish author and historian Thomas Carlyle (1795–1881) and his wife, Jane Welsh Carlyle (1801–1866), to over 600 recipients throughout the world."
    Regions: England
    Dates: 1812-1866
  31. Delacroix Correspondence (Various repositories)
    This collection contains digitized images of handwritten letters by Eugène Delacroix, offering both original and modernized transcriptions; the modernized transcriptions include helpful footnotes and links to related letters. All of the letters are categorized by date and by recipient, and visitors can find additional library and museum holdings information for each letter. This French-language site also offers bibliographic resources, an index, and a glossary of terms, places, and people.
    Regions: France
    Dates: 1817-1863
  32. Darwin Manuscripts (Cambridge Digital Library)
    “This is a conceptually coherent set of over 30,000 digitised and edited manuscript pages, spanning 1835–1882. None of these documents have hitherto been digitised to the present high standard of full-colour and high-resolution. While several documents are classics of the Darwin manuscripts corpus, many have never been transcribed and edited before and many that have been published previously are presented here in new and radically improved editions.”
    Regions: Global; United Kingdom
    Dates: 1835-1882
  33. Victorian Lives and Letters Consortium (Consortium of repositories)
    Presents "interactive digital archives of life-writing extending from the coronation of Queen Victoria to the outbreak of World War I."
    Regions: England
    Dates: 1838-1914
  34. Stalinka (University of Pittsburgh)
    "Visual materials and artifacts relating to Stalin: photographs, posters, paintings, banners, sculptures, chinaware, pins, etc."
    Regions: Russia
    Dates: 1902-2007
  35. Orwell Archive (University College London)
    "The George Orwell Archive is the most comprehensive body of research material relating to the author George Orwell (Eric Blair) (1903–1950) anywhere."
    Regions: England
    Dates: 1903-1950
  36. The Sassoon Diaries (Cambridge University Library)
    Siegfried Sassoon was a soldier-poet who maintained fascinating journals and notebooks for most of his life—most notably his war diaries from his service in the British Army in the First World War. This digital document collection “holds the world’s richest assemblages of Sassoon’s manuscripts and archival papers,” and visitors can browse each journal and enjoy photographs of his handwritten diary entries, poetry, and sketches and doodles.
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 1905-1959
  37. Russian-German Project on the Digitization of German Documents in the Archives of the Russian Federation (Various repositories)
    Following the Second World War, a number of confidential governmental, military, and intelligence documents were collected from the German Third Reich and then distributed to Allied countries, including Russia. In cooperation with the Russian Historical Society and the German Historical Institute in Moscow, the Russian-German Project on the Digitization of German Documents in the Archives of the Russian Federation has digitized these so-called “trophy collections” of German intelligence documents, now available online in this digital collection. Visitors to this Russian and German-language website can find digitized military documents from both world wars as well as dossiers of the German intelligence service.
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 1912-1945
  38. Letters, 1916-1923 (Various repositories)
    “This digital collection includes letters held at institutions in Ireland and abroad alongside those in private collections. There are thousands of letters connecting hundreds of lives commenting a wide range of topics, from wars and violence at home and abroad including the Easter Rising, The Great War, The Anglo-Irish and Civil War, literature and art, love, politics, business, and ordinary life.” Visitors can browse the collection and even help the project by transcribing extant letters, in full or in part.
    Regions: Ireland; United Kingdom
    Dates: 1916-1922
  39. German Propaganda Archive (Calvin College)
    Digitized manuscripts and images that pertain to propagandistic enterprises in Germany under both the Nazi state and the German Democratic Republic. Some materials have been translated from German into English.
    Regions: Germany
    Dates: 1921-1989
  40. NS-Frauen-Warte:Die Einzige Parteiamtliche Frauenzeitschrift (Heidelberg University)
    Digitized versions of the Nazi Party’s propagandistic women’s magazine, NS-Frauen-Warte. This online archive, which is organized chronologically, contains issues published between 1935 and 1945.
    Regions: Germany
    Dates: 1935-1945
  41. Records of the International Brigades (Russian State Archive of Sociopolitical History)
    “The records of Fond 545 reflect activities of the International Brigades and military units which took part in the civil war on the side of the Republican Army of Spain in 1936–1939 . . . Prior to its archival processing, the documents were on repository in the Joint Archive of the Foreign Personnel Commission of the Spanish Communist Party’s Central Committee . . . The documents were then transferred to the Executive Committee of the Communist International (ECCI) as a loose assortment of hand-written papers, typed documents and publications. The main language of the collection is Spanish, with many documents in 26 different languages, including French, English, German, Polish, Russian and others.” Ninety-four percent of the fond’s 339,687 sheets have been digitized.
    Regions: Europe
    Dates: 1936-1945
  42. The Brexit Collection (London School of Economics)
    “A collection of campaigning leaflets from the 1975 and 2016 referendums on the UK’s membership of the common market and EU. The leaflets are from a variety of individuals, political parties and organisations active during both campaigns.”
    Regions: Britain
    Dates: 1975-2016

  1. Cuneiform Digital Library Interactive (University of California, Los Angeles; University of Oxford; Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin)
    The Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative is an archival library of cuneiform tablet collections from various universities, museums, and private collections. The library has catalogued thousands of tablets and other ancient cuneiform texts. The site includes images of the tablets themselves as well as information on their discovery and transliterations of the cuneiform into the English alphabet. The purpose of the library is to "virtually reassemble the scattered textual heritage of the Ancient Near East."
    Regions: Middle East and Northern Africa; Mesopotamia
    Dates: 3500 B.C.E.-1 B.C.E.
  2. Database of Neo-Sumerian Texts (Various repositories; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas)
    “A searchable electronic corpus of Neo-Sumerian administrative cuneiform tablets dated to the 21st century B.C.” The project’s goals are to document all tablets from the Ur III dynasty period, which likely number well over 120,000.
    Regions: Mesopotamia
    Dates: 2100 B.C.E.-2000 B.C.E.
  3. Princeton Digital Library of Islamic Manuscripts (Princeton University)
    “The Princeton University Library created Voyager cataloging records for most of the approximately 9,500 Islamic manuscripts in the Manuscripts Division, which are from Robert Garrett (Class of 1897) and other sources. This is the premier collection of Arabic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish, and other Islamic manuscripts in the Western Hemisphere . . . The manuscripts digitized from microfilm include all texts (chiefly New Series) on Shia law and theology; texts related to other non-Sunni sects, such as the Druze and Kharijites; and more than 750 other manuscripts (Garrett Yahuda Series) on a variety of subjects.”
    Regions: Middle East
    Dates: 700-1973
  4. Qatar Digital Library (Various repositories)
    “The Qatar Digital Library (QDL) is making a vast archive featuring the cultural and historical heritage of the Gulf and wider region freely available online for the first time. It includes archives, maps, manuscripts, sound recordings, photographs and much more, complete with contextualised explanatory notes and links, in both English and Arabic . . . The QDL has been developed as part of a 10-year Memorandum of Understanding on Partnerships between the Qatar Foundation, the Qatar National Library and the British Library.”
    Regions: Middle East
    Dates: 960-present
  5. Women's World in Qajar Iran (Harvard University Library)
    Begun by scholars with a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, this digitized collection focuses on social and cultural history, including "bilingual access to thousands of personal papers, manuscripts, photographs, publications, everyday objects, works of art and audio materials."
    Regions: Iran; World
    Dates: 1796-1925
  6. Wilson Center Digital Archive (Wilson Center; Various repositories)
    The center’s presentation of “International History Declassified” includes translations and images of hundreds of documents relevant to the Middle East, including the Iran-Soviet Relations collection and an Iran-Iraq War “collection of Iraqi documents translated and made available by the Conflict Records Research Center about the 1980 to 1988 conflict also known as the First Persian Gulf War.”
    Regions: Middle East; Iraq
    Dates: 1941-1989
  7. Palestinian Oral History Archive (American University of Beirut Libraries; Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs (IFI), Nakba Archive; Arab Resource Center for Popular Arts (AL-JANA))
    "The Palestinian Oral History Archive is a project to digitize, index, catalog, preserve, and provide access (through a searchable digital platform) to an archival collection of around 1,000 hours of testimonies with first generation Palestinians and other Palestinian communities in Lebanon. POHA documents the life stories of Palestinians residing in refugee camps and different communities in Lebanon. The Archive's main focus is personal accounts surrounding the Nakba, a defining moment in Palestinian history and collective experience. Furthermore, the collection contains life narratives of the pre-Nakba period in pre-1948 Palestine, folktales and songs, as well as stories of the women in Ein el-Helwe camp after its destruction in 1982."
    Regions: Palestine
    Dates: 1994-2009

  1. The Papers of Sir Joseph Banks (State Library of New South Wales)
    A digitized archive of the papers of British naturalist Joseph Banks, a member of James Cook’s first Pacific expedition and a proponent of British settlement in Australia. The papers “amount to approximately 10,000 manuscript pages and include correspondence, principally letters received, but also reports, invoices and accounts, journals, plus a small quantity of maps, charts and watercolours.”
    Regions: England; Australia; Pacific Islands
    Dates: 1767-1822
  2. South Seas (National Library of Australia; Australian National University)
    "South Seas offers the full text of the holograph manuscript of James Cook’s Endeavour Journal ... together with the full texts of the journals kept by Joseph Banks and Sydney Parkinson on the voyage. You will also find the text of all three volumes of John Hawkesworth’s Account of the Voyages undertaken ... in the Southern Hemisphere ... (1773) ... This first phase of South Seas also contains online editions of several important works illustrative of indigenous Pacific cultures before and during the years between 1760 and 1800, as well as a number of literary works revealing how the experiences of voyagers captured the imagination of Europeans during the second-half of the eighteenth century."
    Regions: Australia
    Dates: 1768-1901
  3. Trove: Digitised Newspapers and More (National Library of Australia)
    Scans of historic Australian periodicals.
    Regions: Australia
    Dates: 1803-2013
  4. Papers Past (National Library of New Zealand)
    Papers Past is an online archive of over three million digitized pages of New Zealand newspapers, magazines, diaries, government papers, and other historical textual sources. The collected-newspapers archive contains issues from over twenty traditional Maori newspapers from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
    Regions: Oceania and the Pacific Islands; New Zealand
    Dates: 1839-1948
  5. Oceania Digital Collection (University of California, San Diego)
    “Drawn primarily from the Tuzin Archive for Melanesian Anthropology, this collection illuminates aspects of the vibrant cultures and diverse peoples of the Pacific Islands through 20th-century photographs, dissertations, and films.” Visitors can browse primary source collections or search by format, creator, date, or topic.
    Regions: Oceania and the Pacific Islands
    Dates: 1903-2013
  6. Digitized Collections (The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies)
    The Australian Institute aims to promote “knowledge and understanding of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, traditions, languages and stories, past and present.” The collections range from digitized newsletters of the Evangelical Aborigines’ Inland Mission to items documenting Indigenous soldiers’ service in the Australian military.
    Regions: Australia; Torres Strait Islands
    Dates: 1907-present

  1. Afriterra: The Cartographic Free Library (Afriterra Foundation)
    “The Afriterra Library embraces a non-profit mission to access, preserve, and apply the cartographic record of Africa, enabling broader interpretation and transformative education . . . This resource is achieved by cataloging, digitizing, and displaying more than 5,000 of the rarest historical maps focused on Africa. The content spans over 500 years, covering all regions and scales, in 8 different languages, by 3,000 unique creators.”
    Regions: Africa
    Dates: 1200-1982
  2. Historical Papers (University of Witwatersrand)
    “Historical Papers is one of the largest and most comprehensive independent archives in Southern Africa. We house over 3400 collections of historical, political and cultural importance, encompassing the mid-17th Century to the Present ... Included are the records of many human rights NGOs, trade unions, labour federations, political parties, women’s organisations, churches and church bodies, and the papers of human rights activists. We are also home to a huge volume of political trials, photographs, press clippings, oral interviews, and material collected by several research institutions and individual researchers.”
    Regions: Sub-Saharan Africa
    Dates: 1633-present
  3. Sources on German Colonial History Online (Frankfurt Speical Collection)
    Digitized scans of books and journals on the administration of and everyday life in the German colonies.
    Regions: Africa
    Dates: 1719-1915
  4. Diversity and Tolerance in the Islam of West Africa (Various repositories)
    “This digital library project was a collaborative effort of many persons and institutions, headquartered at MATRIX: The Center for Digital Humanities and Social Sciences at Michigan State University . . . From 2005 to 2010, a team of Africanist scholars developed the Diversity and Tolerance in the Islam of West Africa digital collection. These scholars conducted field research in Africa gathering relevant materials for inclusion in the online library. From oral interviews, photographs, newspapers, maps and archival and handwritten documents researchers crafted galleries of primary source materials and contextualizing essays about Senegal and Ghana, their Muslim communities, and the relations of those communities with the practitioners of other faiths.”
    Regions: Senegal; Ghana
    Dates: 1843-present
  5. African Online Digital Collections (Michigan State University; Various repositories)
    “AODL provides free universal access to cultural heritage materials from and about African countries and communities. It brings together tens of thousands of digitized photographs, videos, archival documents, maps, interviews and oral histories in numerous African languages, many of which are contained in curated thematic galleries and teaching resources. AODL is aimed at a broad international constituency, from university researchers and secondary school teachers to individuals seeking to inform themselves about African people on the continent and in the diaspora.”
    Regions: Sub-Saharan Africa
    Dates: 1855-present
  6. Africa Through a Lens (British National Archives, Foreign and Commonwealth Office)
    Africa through a Lens is an archive of hundreds of photographs from across the African continent maintained by the British National Archives. The collection spans "over 100 years of African history, from the 1860s onwards," and contains descriptions for each image as well as information about where the picture was taken.
    Regions: Sub-Saharan Africa
    Dates: 1860-present
  7. The Humphrey Winterton Collection (Northwestern University Library)
    “The Winterton Collection includes about 7,610 photographs organized in 76 separate albums, scrapbooks or loose collections. The photographs depict life, primarily in East Africa, between about 1860 and 1960 . . . Assembled by the British collector Humphrey Winterton over about 30 years, the collection depicts the breadth of African experience; documents African life; European life in Africa in all its manifestations; and the African landscape, in particular as it changed over time. Included are photographs showing the building of East Africa’s railways, the growth of its urban centers and the development of European colonial administration. The photographs extensively document rural life as well as the travels and work of European colonial officials and private businessmen.”
    Regions: East Africa
    Dates: 1860-1960
  8. O Portal das Memórias de África e do Oriente/The Portal of Africa and the Middle Memories (University of Aveiro and the Centre for Studies on Africa and Development)
    Digitized documents that demonstrate a shared heritage between Portugal and Africa.
    Regions: Cape Verde; Goa; Guinea Bissau; Mozambique; Sao Tome and Principe; Angola; Brazil
    Dates: 1884-2011
  9. OpenSourceGuinea.org (Enrique Martino)
    A domain containing all of the digitized sources cited in Enrique Martino’s Ph.D. dissertation, "Touts and Despots: Recruiting Assemblages of Contract Labour in Fernando Po, and the Gulf of Guinea, 1858–1979." The footnotes are hyperlinked and sources include transcriptions of archival materials, as well as newspapers, images, new fieldwork notebooks, and other material.
    Regions: Equatorial Guinea; Nigeria; Liberia; Cameroon; Gabon
    Dates: 1900-1999
  10. Indian Opinion (National Gandhi Museum, Delhi)
    Digitized excerpts of the Indian Opinion newspaper of South Africa.
    Regions: South Africa
    Dates: 1903-1914
  11. William V. S. Tubman Papers (Liberian Collections, Indiana University)
    “William V. S. Tubman (1895–1971), Liberia’s longest-serving President, served from 1944–1971. Tubman’s presidency was marked by great changes in the economy, politics and social environment of Liberia. The materials in the collection include papers from the years of Tubman’s presidency, his personal correspondence and memorabilia from Tubman’s family.”
    Regions: Africa; Liberia
    Dates: 1904-1992
  12. Archives De L'Afrique Èquatoriale Française (Brazzaville)
    Digitized material of the colonial archives of French Equatorial Africa (AEF) stored in the National Archives of the Congo-Brazzaville. These archives constitute a heritage shared between France and the republics of the old AEF: Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, the Central African Republic, and Chad.
    Regions: Congo-Brazzaville; Gabon; Chad; Cameroon; Central African Republic
    Dates: 1930-1946
  13. Digital Innovation South Africa (Various repositories)
    "DISA is a freely accessible online scholarly resource focusing on the socio-political history of South Africa, particularly the struggle for freedom during the period from 1950 to the first democratic elections in 1994, providing a wealth of material on this fascinating period of the country’s history. Much time, creative thought and debate goes into the selection of the content, and participation and input from interested persons, scholars and institutions in South Africa and overseas is encouraged."
    Regions: South Africa
    Dates: 1950-1994
  14. Bailey's African History Archive (Bailey's African History Archive)
    “Bailey’s African History Archive holds 40 years of material from all the editions of Drum Magazine and its various sister publications—Golden City Post, Trust, True Love, and City Press. The archives contains a wealth of information from politics to culture and complexities of the vast Anglophone African nations.” Freely available online are the photographs associated with several important Drum Magazine stories.
    Regions: South Africa
    Dates: 1957-1967
  15. Mozambique History Network (Colin Darch)
    This site makes available selected newspaper clippings and other resources regarding contemporary Mozambican history, ranging from the National Liberation Struggle to the beginnings of political pluralism in 1994. Materials are organized thematically and most are in Portuguese.
    Regions: Mozambique
    Dates: 1960-1994
  16. Genocide Archive of Rwanda (Aegis Trust Rwanda)
    “The Genocide Archive of Rwanda is the first of its kind in Rwanda. The collections include photographs, objects, audio recordings, video recordings, documents and publications as well as interactive mapping data.” One of the archive’s stated objectives is “to encourage students, teachers and researchers to use the collections as [an] educational resource to teach about the history of the genocide, the dangers of genocide denial, and the importance of genocide prevention.”
    Regions: Rwanda
    Dates: 1968-present
  17. South African Students' Organisations (Historical Papers Research Archive, Wits University)
    A digital collection of organizational documents from the South African Students’ Organisation (SASO), which was originally organized in 1968 as a public oppositional response to apartheid in South Africa. This collection includes digitized images of SASO’s founding constitutional documents, policy manifestos, and provided organizational history, also offering digital images of the organization’s publications, newsletters, meeting minutes and proceedings, and other reports, commissions, and memoranda.
    Regions: South Africa
    Dates: 1969-1973

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